Wednesday, March 30, 2016

A Nazi in Every Shot

The following are excerpts from Mae Brussell's work that appeared in "The Rebel" in 1983, subsequently published in 1991 by Prevailing Winds Research. In her research, the inimitable Jewish  mother of five, daughter of a rabbi, often focused her research on Germans who had escaped Germany at the close of WWII and continued their Nazi shenanigans elsewhere. 

Living near the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) in Monterey Bay, California, made Brussell aware of how American military forces trained foreign agents at that school. She suspected that Lee Harvey Oswald had been groomed there as an intelligence agent who was later used as a patsy by military and civilian intelligence agencies, which operated with help from German Nazis brought to America at the close of the war. 

She analyzed people she saw working together in Dallas during 1963 through her nazi-tinted lenses. Some of her instincts were accurate. Some conclusions, mere guesswork, which have never been proven. Still, she had some fascinating theories.

Gen. Walter Dornberger, Michael and Ruth Paine

When George de Mohrenschildt was busy introducing Lee and Marina to the Dallas-Worth White Russian displaced Czarists, he managed to keep the social level equal with his American contacts. One casual dinner in the company of Michael and Ruth Paine, and that was enough meeting to set the Oswalds' course. George and Jeanne didn't have to meet with them again.

Paine garage
Ruth Paine would provide housing for Marina while Lee went to New Orleans. A few weeks later, she drove Marina to join Lee. After summer vacation at Wood's Hole, Mass. [Naushon Island], Ruth returned and brought Marina to her home in Irving, Texas, while Lee was on the bus to Mexico with Albert Osborne/John Bowen, and four other Solidarists from the Russian network. After Kennedy was murdered, the Dallas police rushed to the Paines' home. From that garage and elsewhere, via the Paines, came most of the incriminating evidence against Oswald. The alleged murder weapon never could be proven by the Warren Commission as ever having come from their garage.

The cropped photo that Life printed with Oswald holding a rifle came from a box removed from the garage, taken to the police department, then returned the next day, with nobody present to indicate where it came from.

Accessory after the fact, the letter was delivered to Marina in December undated and unsigned, to cover up General Walker's anxiety to blame a "Communist," Lee, for shooting at him in April and came from Ruth to Marina. It wasn't in the home before then. The Warren Commission required planted evidence sometimes in order to divert from Lee Oswald's links to the Defense Department, assisted by Ruth and Michael Paine.[emphasis added]

Michael Paine's occupation at Bell Aircraft is the Defense Department. This job requires security clearances, so what would the unlikely Oswalds be doing in his home? Oswald, the "defector?" Paine's boss at Bell Aircraft as Director of Research and Development, was none other than the notorious war criminal General Walter Dornberger. Dornberger was supposed to be hanged at Nuremburg for his war crimes, slave labor and mass murders. The British warned the U.S. not to let him live because even after the war he was conniving for another one. As stated, "Dornberger is a menace of the first order who is untrustworthy. His attitude will turn ally against ally and he would become a source of irritation and future unrest." (Project Paperclip, Clarence Lansey.)

The very first call to authorities after the gun went off on November 22, 1963, was from an employee at Bell Helicopter who suggested "Oswald did it." Police never located the source of both Oswald addresses that day.

Michael Paine took Lee to a meeting with General Edwin Walker shortly before the assassination. Soon Oswald would be charged with having shot Walker in April, and Walker would be calling his nazi cronies in Germany 24 hours after JFK was killed telling them he finally solved "who shot through his window" seven months earlier: the same Oswald.

Who were the Paines?
To believe the Warren Commission and the CIA staff of lawyers, they were Mr. and Mrs. Good Neighbor, all heart, altruistic. Ruth simply wanted to learn more Russian from a native. For that price, she housed Marina, a two-year-old daughter, a new infant, with all the fuss and mess of three extras in a tiny house.

Michael Paine was a descendant of the Cabots on both sides. His cousin Thomas Dudley Cabot, former president of United Fruit, had offered their Gibraltar Steamship as a cover for the CIA during the Bay of Pigs. Another cousin was Alexander Cochrane Forbes, a director of United Fruit and trustee of Cabot, Cabot, and Forbes. Both Allen Dulles and John J. McCloy were part of the United Fruit team. The Paine family had links with circles of the OSS and the CIA. Ruth Hyde Paine maintained close ties with the Forbes families. Peter Dale Scott investigated the Paines, "the patrician Paine and Forbes families." A far cry from anybody's neighbor.

Michael's education came as a tradition, third generation physicist at Harvard before working for Bell Helicopter. [Note: According to Nancy Wertz, Michael Paine studied Physics at Harvard but flunked out. He then went to Swarthmore for another year, but he never graduated. His father, Lyman Paine, was an architect.]

Albert Speer, right
The British were correct on the Dornberger evaluation. Another clue to Albert Speer, the Reichmaster for Munitions and War Production, and General Dornberger, is their meeting as early as April, 1943. When it was obvious to Hitler they would be losing the war against the USSR, all top Nazis made detailed plans for two years on how to proceed next.

Speer met with Dornberger, at Peenemunde, the missile and rocket factory run with Werner Von Braun, and instructed him in "the dispersion of functions throughout the Reich." Translated, that meant get ready to come to the U.S. [ Dornberger's bio at Encyclopaedia Britannica states:
Walter Robert Dornberger, (born Sept. 6, 1895, Giessen, Ger.—died June 27, 1980, Baden-Württemberg, W.Ger.), engineer who directed construction of the German V-2 rocket during World War II.

Dornberger enlisted in the German army in 1914 and was commissioned the next year. After being captured by the French, he was released in 1919 and retained in the small army permitted Germany under the terms of the Versailles treaty. He was sent by the army in 1925 to the School of Technology in Charlottenberg; there Dornberger specialized in ballistics and earned an M.A. degree in 1930. He was assigned to the development of rocket weapons, a category not prohibited by the Versailles settlement, but had to struggle to obtain recognition for his efforts. In the summer of 1932, however, he was placed in charge of Research Station West at Kummersdorf, a few miles south of Berlin, where, with Wernher von Braun, he began to perfect the rocket engine. In May 1937 the staff was moved to Peenemünde, where the A series of rocket missiles was built; the A-4 rocket developed there later became widely known in its military form as the V-2 and was the forerunner of all postwar space vehicles.

Wernher von Braun Rocket Team at Fort Bliss in March 1946
After World War II, Dornberger, who had attained the rank of lieutenant general, spent two years in England as a prisoner, then emigrated to the United States in 1947, where he worked as an adviser on guided missiles for the United States Air Force. In 1950 he became a consultant to the Bell Aircraft Corporation and in 1954 wrote V-2, his reminiscences. During his association with Bell, Dornberger participated in the Air Force–NASA project Dyna-Soar, which was eventually transmuted into the space shuttle program. Dornberger retired in 1965.

Lee Harvey Oswald, Albert Osborne

When Lee Harvey Oswald entered Mexico at Laredo, Texas, on Sept. 26, 1963, his companion on the Red Arrow bus was Albert Osborne, alias John Howard Bowen. Bowen-Osborne had been running a school for highly professional marksmen in Oaxaca, Mexico, since 1934. The cover for the place was his particular mission, and he was the missionary.

The FBI records on Bowen go back to June 4, 1942, in Henderson Springs, Tennessee. He operated a camp for boys known as "Campfire Council." Neighbors complained it was for pro-nazi activities with young fascists. Bowen vehemently opposed the U.S. going to war with nazi Germany. They stomped on the American flag.

Before that, Bowen worked for the Tennessee Valley Authority since 1933. His dual citizenship between Great Britain and the U.S. took him over the entire globe. So did his use of multiple aliases.

After the Warren Commission published their report in September 1964, several attorneys in the Southwest recognized the name of Osborne. September 8, 1952, Jake Floyd was murdered. The target was meant to be his father, District Judge Floyd. Two suspects were caught, one got away. Their testimony was about being hired by Osborne and how he ran the school for assassins.

Later investigation revealed Osborne's connections to Division V of the FBI, and to Clay Shaw's Centro Mondiale Commerciale, with funding coming from New Orleans for the CIA, Anti-Castro Cubans, and others. Lee Harvey Oswald applied for a tourist card to enter Mexico while still in New Orleans on September 17, 1963

Four other persons, having consecutive tourist numbers, departed nine days later, like Oswald, all to arrive at the same time, entering from several different cities. They were part of the White Russian Solidarists, the Gehlen emigre community that Lee and Marina mingled with.

This assassination team funded Maurice Brooks Gatlin, Guy Bannister, and the Miami office of Double Check Corporation. J. Edgar Hoover's Division V, Domestic Intelligence, working with the American Council of Christian Churches, had used this group from the Bowen-Osbome academy of assassins.

Volume XXV of the Hearings has many pages of interviews with people who had sent money to Jack Bowen. They never met him, and some like Mrs. Bessie White, Pikesville, Tenn., mailed $35 a month to John Howard Bowen who she believed had been doing missionary work for 18 years in Mexico." Osborne-Bowen had a mission.

Lee Harvey Oswald, agent from U.S. Defense Dept., had a team of doubles impersonating his behavior, leaving trails of anti-American frustration and meetings with various people.

While Oswald was in Mexico just prior to Kennedy's murder the purposes were concealed. Meanwhile, the CIA and various authorities led Oswald to the Cuban Embassy, the Soviet Embassy. When the face or voices didn't match the authentic Oswald, it didn't matter, given a difference of 40 to SO pounds and shape. What came from all this was the conclusion that Oswald had really wanted to go to Cuba next. Which Oswald, and why?

This was to finalize with the illusion of an Oswald-Castro admiration just days before Kennedy would be killed.

"Treason for My Daily Bread"
Argentina and Martin Bormann

In August 1971, a French paper headlined a news story, "Martin Bormann behind the Kennedy murders." It listed an international band of killers that was located in Texas. They carried out the two assassinations at the German command.

Six years later, June 8, 1977, the London Guardian reported, "Bormann Linked with Kennedy Murder." This story was based on a new book titled, Treason for My Daily Bread by Mikhail Lebedev.

Lebedev detailed how Martin Bormann left Europe, established his current life in Paraguay, and how the fatal head shot to Kennedy was delivered by an agent paid by Bormann, alias of Zed.

Is any of this true?

Many of these allegations and names come together with both Paris Flammonde's The Kennedy Conspiracy and the Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal, known as the "Torbitt Document."

"Zed" allegedly used a .45 for the final shot.

Buddy Walters, murdered January 10, 1969, picked up a .45 slug in Dealey Plaza and gave it to the Dallas Police.

There were two possible assassination teams in Dallas.

The military from Munich, Germany, that was to take over the YAF, with Robert Morris' help, have yet to be identified or interviewed. (Morris from U.S. intelligence, having to do with USSR covert work.) Gen. Edwin Walker's arrangement with U.S. Military in Germany or, the arrival of such people for Nov. 22, 1963, is open to question.

Albert Osborne's "mission" in Mexico, with direct links to Clay Shaw's Centro Mondiale Commerciale, has never been touched. This was the international band of killers with the Borghese-James Angleton operations working throughout the world.

Otto Skorzeny's CIA and Reinhard Gehlen death squads, with headquarters in Madrid, were founded by Martin Bormann when the Evita Peron funds were shared after 1952.

Lebedev mentions "Ruth," David Ferrie, Clay Shaw, Guy Bannister, and Colonel Orlov. The very first day George de Mohrenschildt visited Marina Oswald she was alone and Lee was working. He brought with him a "Colonel Orlov."

The House Select Committee on Assassinations "investigated" the murder of President John E Kennedy from 1976-1978. The information about Bormann was available from 1971. Treason for My Daily Bread was published while they were supposed to be finding the smoking gun.

G. Robert Blakey, Chief Consul for the Committee, refused to admit any research or documents on these subjects. He would hang up the telephone and even refused to say if he had ever seen the Torbitt Document. Six million dollars was allotted by Congress to investigate the assassination of president Kennedy. Martin Bormann may have had his motives for his actions through the years. What were G. Robert Blakey's [motives]? What form of prosecution should be suggested for committees, paid to uncover the truth, who continuously sweep under the rug?

In A Study of a Master Spy, published in London in 196l, Bob Edwards, a member of Parliament and Kenneth Dunne, presented documentary evidence that Allen Dulles of the CIA carried on secret conferences with representatives of Hitler's SS Security Office in February and March 1943. They learned that "Official Washington knew Martin Bormann, Deputy Fuhrer of Hitler's Germany, master-minded the international 'Die Spirule' (Spider) underground organization which is planning to revive nazism as soon as West Germany is adequately rearmed by the United States. Official Washington seems disinterested."

With John J. McCloy, Allen Dulles and J. Edgar Hoover in control of the Kennedy assassination investigation, these nazi connections were buried.

The Bunge Corporation, Argentina & Germany

The stock market dropped 24 points in 27 minutes when news of President Kennedy's assassination was announced. 2.6 million shares were sold off. It was the greatest panic since 1929. Somebody made a huge profit selling short in many markets. Somebody made half a billion dollars in one day.

Coincidentally, the Allied Crude Vegetable Oil Refining Corporation, headed by New Jersey commodities dealer Anthony De Angeles, crashed the same day, driving the market down.

Allied Crude was controlled by U.S. American Bunge Corporation and financially controlled by a group of share-holders headquartered in Argentina, known as "Bunge and Born, LDA."

Business Week of October 19. 1963, one month before the Kennedy assassination, described the Born family in Argentina, the biggest shareholders for Bunge, as being from Europe, specifically Germany.

Everything about Bunge has German influence. They have a $2 billion annual business in 80 countries. There are over 110 offices, all linked by Telex and under-the-ocean telegraph channels. The Bunge Corporation is referred to as "the Octopus." The book Were We Controlled? detailed the relationship of the Bunge Corporation, the foreknowledge of Kennedy's murder, and the Argentine-German connections.

1960 Elections: Richard Nixon vs. John F. Kennedy

Before the election of 1960, a group within the Christian Right plotted to kill John Kennedy in Van Nuys, California while he was still a candidate. The group was a meld of anti-Castro Cubans, Minutemen and home-grown nazis. Some were sought by Jim Garrison, following his arrest of Clay Shaw, for testimony before the New Orleans grand jury. When Garrison forwarded extradition papers for Edgar Eugene Bradley, a member of the group, Governor Ronald Reagan refused to sign them. The leader of one of these groups, the Christian Defense League (CDL), was the Reverend William P. Gale. During the war Gale had been an Army colonel in the Philippines training guerrilla bands. His superior officer was Willoughby. By the late 1950s Gale was recruiting veterans for his "Identity" group, which was financed by a wealthy Los Angeles man.

One of the CDL's contacts was Captain Robert K. Brown, a special forces professional from Fort Benning, Georgia. Brown was working with anti-Castro Cubans, mercenaries similar to Skorzeny's teams. Brown is now publisher of Soldier of Fortune magazine and paramilitary texts such as Silencers, Snipers and Assassins. The book explains how Mitchell WerBell made special weapons for the CIA, Bay of Pigs assault squads and other customers. WerBell, son of a wealthy Czarist cavalry officer, perfected a silencer so effective a gun can be shot in one room and not heard in the next. It is ideal for assassinations.

There had been prolonged controversy about how many shots were fired the day Kennedy was killed. The President's wounds, nicks on the limousine and curb, and other bullet evidence indicated quite a few. But the Warren Commission concluded there were only three. It took the testimony of spectators in Dealey Plaza who said they only heard three. It never considered the possibility that silencer-fitted guns were fired.

When Clay Shaw was arrested by Jim Garrison the news was of particular interest to the Italian newspaper Paesa Sera. It followed up with a story that Shaw belonged to a cover organization in Rome named Cenuo Mondiale Commerciale (CMC). Its location was frequently moved, its presidents rotated; its modus operandi altered. CMC included Italian fascists, elements of the European paramilitary right, the CIA, and the U.S. Defense Department. There were major shareholders with banks located in Switzerland, Miami, Basel and other major cities. CMC had been formed in 1961, one year after Kennedy was elected. Its principals had worked with fascist networks established after World War II. The board of directors numbered Ferenc Nagy, a former Hungarian premier who led that country's Anti-Communist Countrymen's Party in exile. J. Edgar Hoover brought Nagy to the United States, where there were numerous Gehlen-supported emigre organizations.

On August 18, 1951, the Saturday Evening Post pictured Nagy with Czech, Pole, Hungarian and Russian exiles under the heading: "They Want Us To Go to War Right Now." On November 22, 1963 Nagy was living in Dallas.

CMC was actually a subsidiary of Swiss-based Permindex, whose president was Prince Gutierez de Spadafora, Italian industrialist and large landowner. Spadafora's daughter-in-law was related to Hjalmar Schacht. Clay Shaw, who managed the New Orleans International Trade Mart, was a director. Another was Giorgio Mantello, aka George Mandel, who would later move to New Orleans. Once convicted of "criminal activities" in Switzerland, Mantello worked closely with his fellow Hungarian Nagy. One of the goals of the CMC was that "Rome will recover once again her position as center of the civilized world."

Major L. M. Bloomfield, a veteran of the OSS who resided in Montreal, was a suspect Garrison wanted to question. In Canada he reportedly controlled Credit Suisse, Heineken's Breweries, Israel Continental Company, Grimaldo Siosa Lines and other international firms. Shaw's name was found among eleven directors of a company in Montreal that actually was based in Rome. Who was giving the virtually unlimited money to CMC, and who was getting it? The answer might have been found in the huge amounts that flowed out of Evita Peron's accounts.[emphasis added]

Paesa Sera reported on March 4, 1967 that CMC was a creature of the CIA serving as a money conduit, and that Shaw and Bloomfield conducted illegal political espionage under its cover. In New Orleans, Shaw was the respected citizen who had helped restore the French Quarter. In Rome he was a vital member of the boards of twin companies dealing with fascists accused of European assassinations. Shaw's address book contained the private number of Principessa Marcelle Borghese, now Duchessa de Bomartao, who is related to Prince Valerio Borghese. Called the "Black Prince" and "The New Duce," Borghese was leader of the Movimento Sociale Italiano, a neo-fascist syndicate. The Black Prince, who was a decorated submarine captain in the First World War, was convicted of cooperating with the nazis in WW II and given 12 years in prison.

The Black Prince is the same Borghese rescued by the CIA's James J. Angleton. No wonder Angleton was awarded the Sovereign Military Order of Malta by the Pope after the war. It might explain what Angleton was hinting at when questioned about the murder of JFK: "A mansion has many rooms; there were many things during the period; I 'm not privy to who struck John."

Clay Shaw's affiliation with Permindex would plug in later to Argentina, Spain, Rome, New Orleans and Dallas. The international range of hit teams, using CIA money diverted overseas to cover companies set up by the Gehlen Organization, started coming together after Shaw's arrest. [emphasis added]

In November, 1960 it would be Nixon versus Kennedy. Frank Sinatra introduced Judith Exner to John Kennedy on the eve of the New Hampshire primary. A few weeks later Sinatra introduced Judith Exner to Chicago Mafia boss Sam Giancana. So Exner became involved, as William Safire put it, in a "dual affair with the nation's most powerful mobster and the nation's most powerful political leader."

Giancana was busy with more than his love life; he was hired to form assassination teams to go after Fidel Castro. The man who retained him was Robert Maheu, a former FBI and CIA operative. It was a classic cutoff. Maheu never mentioned that the CIA was behind it. He intimated to Giancana that wealthy Cuban exiles were providing the funds. This sounded plausible, since Maheu was Howard Hughes' right-hand man.

Giancana put his Los Angeles lieutenant, Johnny Roselli, in charge of the hit squads. In 1978 when the House Select Committee questioned him, Roselli hinted that his assignment was aimed at Kennedy as well as Castro. Shortly afterward, his body was found floating in an oil drum off the Florida coast. Giancana never got a chance to testify. He was shot to death in his Chicago home.

The Howard Hughes organization, used as a cover for the kill-Castro conspiracy, (Hughes thought it was a patriotic idea) has long retained Carl Byoir Associates as its public relations arm. Throughout the war Byoir represented nazi bankers and industrialists and the I.G. Farben interests. One of his clients was Ernest Schmitz, member of the I.G. Farben-Ilgner and the German American Board of Trade. His Information Services was subsidized by the nazi government. George Sylvester Viereck, editor of the German Library of Information, was also in business with Byoir. A lucrative Byoir client was the Frederick Flick Group. Flick, a Nuremberg defendant released by McCloy, was the single greatest power behind the nazi military muscle.

Frederick Flick's son was close to the W.R. Grace Company, and invested over $400,000 in partnership with J. Peter Grace in the United States. During the war, W.R. Grace was accused in a military report of protecting a certain nazi Colonel Brite in Bolivia. In 1951, when the CIA smuggled Barbie out of Germany, he was sent to join the same Colonel Brite. George de Mohrenschildt was a close associate of the company's founder, William Grace.

De Mohrenschildt was a man of many faces. He befriended Lee and Marina Oswald, introducing them to the White Russian community. He made phone calls to obtain Lee jobs and housing. As he told it to the Warren Commission, he was fascinated with this strange couple just out of Russia. But at the Petroleum Club in Dallas, De Mohrenschildt sang the praises of Heinrich Himmler. His travels took him all over the world on missions identified with intelligence. In 1956 he was employed by Pantetec Oil Company owned by the family of William Buckley. De Mohrenschildt often discussed Oswald with J. Walton Moore, the CIA's Domestic Contacts Division resident in Dallas. In the spring of l963, just after visiting the Oswalds, he went to Washington. There is a record of a phone call de Mohrenschildt made on May 7, 1963, to the Army Chief of Staff for intelligence. The same month he had a meeting in person with a member of that staff. His military connections seem to have been wide. One of the first persons de Mohrenschildt took the Oswalds to see in Dallas was retired Admiral Chester Barton.

Although De Mohrenschildt and his wife Jeanne testified at length before the Warren Commission, only attorney Albert Jenner and Pentagon historian Alfred Goldberg attended. One of Jenner's clients was General Dynamics, maker of the F-111 fighter that would achieve fame in Vietnam. The chief of security for General Dynamics in Dallas, Max Clark, was another De Mohrenschildt associate donating money to help Marina while George got Lee his next job in Dallas. He found one at the graphics house of Jagger-Chiles-Stovall, which held classified military contracts.

Jeanne de Mohrenschildt was originally brought to the U.S. by a family member employed by the Howard Hughes organization. In 1977 George was found fatally shot, allegedly a suicide, on the day a House Select Committee investigator came by looking for him. Jeanne consented to a press interview. She said George had been a nazi spy.

The placement de Mohrenschildt got for Oswald allowed him to visit the Sol Bloom agency at least 40 times. It was this agency that later decided the motorcade route for Kennedy's fatal visit.

Ruth Paine, whom Oswald met via George, had called Roy Truly and procured work for Oswald at the Texas School Book Depository. If Maydell and the Gehlen agents were active in the U.S. they knew all the right moves to secure their patsy.


How Nixon Actually Got Into Power

By Mae Brussell

From "The Realist," August, 1972

The rise of Adolph Hitler and fascism in Germany was carefully planned. It began with the illegal rearmament of a covert army following defeat in World War I, which was an intentional, secretive breaking of the Versailles Treaty disarmament agreements. American munition manufacturers and industrialists aided the clandestine military leaders of Germany in their rearmament. (1)

Over four hundred political assassinations of legitimate government officials from various agencies in Germany took place during that period. These murders were necessary for the desired power and position the hidden German government needed.

German law courts, plus their Supreme Court, assisted the growing military regime from 1920-1933. Two governments, one official and legal, one clandestine and secretive, existed side by side, Hitler, front man and leader of the illegal arms, mistaken for comical by the intellectuals, was administered the oath as Chancellor of the German Reich January 30, 1933.

The rise of Richard Nixon in the United States was carefully planned. An illegal attitude towards the Versailles Treaty allowed American financiers to feed and support Germany's illegal rearmament. An illegal attitude toward the Geneva Accord was also approved by Dwight Eisenhower for Indochina in 1945. (2)

A study of our State department and espionage establishment reveals that we had clandestine, secret armies functioning both abroad and in the United States. (3)

Hundreds of political assassinations, plus the Supreme Court, have supported this clandestine government and military regime by lending their name to the concealment of the conspiracies to murder our leaders. They refuse to examine documents that exist, allow truth to remain locked in the National Archives on the basis of the lie, "national security."

Richard Nixon, front man and leader of this illegal government, mistaken for comical by the intellectuals, was administered the oath of president of the United States on January 20, 1969.

Military and industrial fanatics felt deprived and defeated when John Kennedy would not make war with the Soviet Union as late as 1961. E.M. Dealey, militant publisher of the Dallas News, told President Kennedy, 'We need a man on horseback to lead this nation. Too many people in Texas and the Southwest think you are riding Caroline's tricycle." (4)

Two years later, in Dealey Plaza, John Kennedy was murdered. He feared the hidden government behind his back, publicly stating he wanted "to splinter the CIA in a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds."(5) The day our President was murdered, the streets of Dallas were filled with posters and handbills proclaiming him a traitor. This was the same motivation for illegal assassinations and killings in pre-Nazi, and Nazi Germany. (6)

The Warfare State was set free, following November 22, 1963, to show its ugly face. The war in Asia began to escalate, with no noticeable provocations, only three weeks after the murder of President Kennedy. (7) John Foster Dulles was U.S. Secretary of State from 1953-1959. Before and following these years heading the State Department, this public servant wielded tremendous power and influence with the military and industrial monopolies of power and wealth in the world. He was the architect of "containing Communism."(8) Mr. Dulles confided, "President Eisenhower surrendered all his power to me." In 1956 he said, "Don't bother about what the President said. I write what he says.'(9) The State Department was "in my hat." You did not have to rely on the department or its bureaucracy. (10)

His brother, Allen Dulles, headed our spy agency formerly known as the OSS. As long as John Foster Dulles was Secretary of State, Allen Dulles had no need to "chafe under political control." Both brothers "placed supreme confidence in their personal judgments." They were completely trusted and were able to act at will and " shielded from any unpleasant consequences." (11) Adolph Hitler declared war in 1941. By 1942 Allen Dulles was moved to Switzerland for the purpose of rounding up and importing to the United States, German "specialists." Two years before the war ended, or its fate was decided, the United States was making arrangements for Nazi scientists, arms experts to come to our democracy (for which the boys were fighting and dying at that moment). (12)

From 1945 until 1952 the U.S. military brought over 642 alien "specialists" and their families from nazi Germany. They were known collectively by the code name "paperclip." German missile and rocket experts, munition makers, war experts were carefully selected and located into aerospace programs, war industries, armament factories, defense and warfare manufacturing.(13)

Violent anti-communist fears by the military and munition makers justified the exchange for a once democratic nation into the fascist state we have today. Members of the nazi party now hold key positions in our universities, factories, aircraft and aerospace programs.(14) When the nazi empire collapsed in 1945, ex-nazi General Reinhard Gehlen joined forces with our OSS. Gehlen was placed in charge of wartime intelligence for Foreign Armies East. "It was not long before Gehlen was back in business, this time for the United States. Gehlen named his price and terms."'(15) A series of meetings was arranged at the Pentagon with nazi Gehlen, Allen Dulles, J. Edgar Hoover and others.(16) The Gehlen organization combined forces and agents with the OSS, which was soon to become known as the CIA. Experts in clandestine and illegal control of Germany through political assassinations and reversal of judicial processes became the new teachers for Allen Dulles and Richard Helms. They helped form the new CIA in 1947, based upon clandestine activities in nazi Germany.(17)

Espionage networks were supposedly to spy out secrets of other nations. Instead they have secretly engaged in clandestine political actions, stirred revolts, overthrown governments and attempted to bring about political change.

The method of maintaining billion dollar war machines and related armament and aircraft factories requires controlling people, political leaders, and otherwise legal governmental agencies. The Communist scare, hot war and cold war propaganda, would continue to manipulate the majority of the people. This scare was the brainchild of the fascist strategist

Enter Richard Milhous Nixon.

He applied to serve in the FBI following graduation from law school. No answer followed. When World War 2 was declared, Nixon requested sea duty and was assigned to the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command.(18) Nixon's 15 months in the South Pacific ended when he was transferred to Fleet Air Wing 8 at Alameda, Califomia, and from there he was assigned on special orders to the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics. The Navy assigned him to "winding up" active contracts with such aircraft firms as Bell and Glenn Martin.(19) That year was 1945, when importation proceedings began for the 642 nazi rocket and aerospace experts and scientists from Germany to the U.S. Through the "generosity of the Guggenheim Foundation they obtained a suitable site - a huge medieval castle, built by financier Jay Gould on a 160-acre estate at Sands Point, Long Island. Here the Germans began work on a secret project for the Navy's Office of Research and Inventions.(21)

April, May, June and July, 1945, worldwide attention fell upon German atrocities. From Belsen, Nordhusen, Buchenwald, and Dachau came stories of slaughter and grotesque medical research conducted in the name of science. Public opinion polls gave no evidence of generous feelings toward any group in the German population. But opinions do not automatically create Policy . (22)

By 1945 the armed services accepted the nazis' skills and mentality as indispensable to our military power. Young advisors could not fully appreciate the concern about clandestine maneuvers after World War I, and were not alarmed by the devastation and destruction of the Third Reich. They looked upon the German scientists with excitement and anticipation.(23) The Department of Navy was the first to act upon the importation process.(27)

States to benefit economically from the influx of munition makers, rocket and space industries, warfare hardware were based in the South and Southwest. Segregated, racist states were natural habitats for imported Germans. Cold war propaganda, perpetuated by hatred of the Soviet Union and much of Asia, was financed and fostered for the most part in Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, Ohio, Texas, Alabama, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico and Califomia.

The same mentality that allowed genocidal, inhuman slaughters on the continent of Europe built machinery to extend pain and warfare in Southeast Asia.

Richard Nixon was in New York, serving in the Navy, the summer that importation plans started going into effect. He soon moved to Maryland where a very important telegram was to arrive. "He wanted to get out of the service, but there was the great question, 'What now?' While he pondered his alternatives, events and circumstances were deciding the question for him. A telegram was the instrument of fate. (28)

In August, 1945, a Committee of One Hundred Men located in California placed an advertisement in 26 newspapers:

WANTED-Congressman candidate with no previous political experience to defeat a man who has represented the district in the House for ten years. Any young man, resident of district, preferably a veteran, fair education, no political strings or obligations and possessor of a few ideas for betterment of country at large may apply for the job. Applicants will be reviewed by 100 interested citizens who will guarantee support but will not obligate the candidate in any way. (26)

That ad was typical, a covert method of pretending this was an open contest for office. Richard Nixon, located in Maryland, still in the Navy, received a telephone call from Herman Perry. "Are you a republican and are you available?" were the two questions asked of Nixon. (27)

Herman Perry was vice president of Bank of America (28) which was soon on its way to becoming the largest private bank in the world. By 1960, one hundred top corporations were spending $21-billion for military goods. In California alone, fully half of all jobs related directly or indirectly on the continuance of the arms race.(29)

Richard Nixon, poor, from an unknown family, absent from the California scene for many formative years during law school and military service, was selected to represent old guard California republicans who picked him to run for Congress.(30) He was called upon to serve the strategists.

Nixon was "recognized."

Significant to the political escalation of Richard Nixon from congressman to vice president was the Alger Hiss case. The Hiss case was to Nixon what the Reichstag fire was to Hitler. Both were dramatic lies planned and executed by the clandestine strategists.

Parallels to German strategy -- assassinations, destruction of evidence, distortion of evidence to discredit legitimate public servants -- existed precisely in America. (31) In 1934, Alger Hiss was legal counsel for the Senate Nye Committee. This group was set up for the purpose of investigating illegal rearmament practices.(32) During those years Hiss was antagonizing American industrial and banking giants. Germany was illegally rearming. It became necessary to discredit any persons such as Hiss who were interested in peace, working for legitimate peaceful alternatives.

Whittaker Chambers made a point of becoming acquainted with Alger Hiss in 1934. At that time, some considered Chambers to be a German spy.(33) Using techniques of imported masters of espionage, plans were being made at that time to discredit Alger Hiss. By waiting several years, Hiss could be strategically occupied in various Government services. John Foster Dulles was instrumental in placing Hiss as head of the Carnegie Foundation, a group associated with peace and the United Nations.

Attacks on Hiss started in 1941, attempting to associate him with Communists, exploded into a time bomb in 1948. The total effect in delaying the smear was to discredit an era. Richard Nixon became recipient of the efforts. The reputation of Roosevelt, the New Deal, Dumbarton Oaks Conference, United Nations and Truman's administration all became tinted "red." Joe McCarthy entered this milieu and expressed fears that had been fomented in lies.

Richard Nixon had always served his masters by employing fear and hysteria. His original campaigns against Jerry Voomis and Helen Douglas were unfounded red smears. That is the only way he operates.

One of the clues to covert smears is the common mishandling of evidence. For 8 1/2 years I have studied carefully the evidence associated with the murder of John Kennedy. Bullets, clothing, weapons, X-rays, photographs, car interior, autopsy reports, cameras, street sign, curb, lamppost, clothing of John Connally, diaries, FBI documents, CIA reports and State Department papers were either burned, airborned to Michigan and destroyed, altered, planted, missing or locked up.(37) Evidence to prove covert murder of Robert Kennedy is "locked up for seventy five years." (38)

What happened to the lone piece of evidence in the Alger Hiss case that was important to his conviction, the famous Woodstock typewriter? Because Richard Nixon said his "name, reputation and career" were linked to this case, he will tell you about the typewriter himself.

A massive search was initiated for the key 'witness' in the case, the old Woodstock typewriter on which Chambers said Mrs. Hiss had typed the incriminating documents. On December 13, FBI agents found the typewriter. The same day I appeared before the Grand Jury with the microfilm. (Richard Nixon, My Six Crises, Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, NY, 1962, $5.95, p. 59)

For $5 less, and six years later, you can buy the same story, by the same author, without the typewriter:

A massive search was initiated for the key 'witness' in the case, the old Woodstock typewriter on which Chambers said Mrs. Hiss had typed the incriminating documents. On December 13, FBI agents were unable to find the typewriter, but they did find some old letters which Priscilla Hiss admitted having typed on the Woodstock. (Richard Nixon, My Six Crises, Pyramid Books, 95e, p. 64)

At this point, Nixon added a fooulote blaming the "press, who were busy in those tense days were several rumors behind closed doors of the Grand Jury. One reporter said the typewriter was found, but actually it was not found until several months later."

Even with the above explanation, Nixon still does not inform the reader that the Woodstock typewriter was found not by the 35 FBI agents several months later who were turning Washington upside-down searching for it. The typewriter was actually found by Donald Hiss and his own investigators, and presented by Alger Hiss at the first trial as an exhibit for the defense.

The chief prosecutor of the Alger Hiss case, Richard Nixon, trying to pin a conspiracy or Communist label on Hiss, could not write his own book correctly about the key evidence used against him. This kind of smear and investigation was going to be used as the excuse for elevating Nixon into the role of vice president of the United States. Allen Dulles and John Foster Dulles would control all State Department policies and espionage activities for the president.

There was another observation regarding the famous Woodstock typewriter. Robert Kennedy, as Attorney General of the United States in 1962, was making a "recent check and finds the FBI never had the Woodstock typewriter. Writing to Meyer Zeligs about this manner, Claude Cross mentioned, "In my mind there is a mystery connected with this typewriter and its whereabouts from the period just prior to the trial.(39) Why was Robert Kennedy searching for this important evidence, the link in the Nixon saga? Were the Kennedys getting ready to investigate Richard Nixon's pieces of planted evidence used for purposes of slander and redbaiting?

Three of Alger Hiss' friends who could have changed the tide of history -- Harry Dexter White, Walter Marvin Smith and Lawrence Guggan -- were found dead shortly after having contact with our FBI.(37) When the covert government creates its plot, in Germany or the United States, nobody stands in their way.

Isaac Don Levine is the man who took Whittaker Chambers "by the arm," a reluctant Chambers, and arranged the meetings where he would begin to smear Alger Hiss.(38) It was no coincidence that the same Isaac Don Levine would be meeting with Marina Oswald, widow of Lee Harvey Oswald, immediately following the murder of President Kennedy. They were in a huddle to exchange money for squeezing a "communist" story out of a CIA plot. (39) Levine served Richard Nixon's career faithfully and many times through the years.

This fellow Levine is in contact with Marina to break the story up a little more graphic manner and tie it into a Russian business, and it is with the thought and background of a Russian connection, conspiracy concept. (John J. McCloy, Minutes of Warren Commission, Meeting, Jan. 21, 1964

Alger Hiss said that Richard Nixon was engaged in something "beyond his scope and size."(40) Richard Nixon, like Adolph Hitler, is a patchwork quilt. Both men represent the sum total of all murders, secret plans, behind-the-scene covert imaginations that created their existence. They were hand-sewn and designed by identical masters. It was a community project between persons from Nazi Germany and the United States military and intelligence agencies.

They are in power today, continuing mass murders, political assassinations. Industrial giants scrape the bottom of the ocean, the surface of the moon, the face of the earth for the oil, gold, minerals, resources within their grasp. It is the moral obligation of human beings to halt this hunger for power and legalized greed toward the majority of persons on the planet earth.

High summit meetings, a false sense of euphoria preceding elections, does not conceal increased budgets for weaponry, new laws of repression or further concentration of power in the White House. The family of humanity is not represented by the strategists who are few in number, still holding on to their power. Secret organizations such as the Lincoln Club, formed in 1963, continue to finance and dictate to Richard Nixon.(41) This group should be carefully examined.

Nixon's kind of power over other people 's lives is elusive, and vanishes rapidly at the proper moment. The human family has new weapons in the war against secrecy. Information is power. Speed of communications is power. Ability is power. Sheer numbers of intelligent and concerned citizens becomes power. Facts are power.

Available facts and documentation of past political assassinations must be exposed today, before the next election in 1972. The coup d'etat in 1963, and again in 1968, did not represent the power or the interests of the majority. It is time to call a halt against the cold war, the hot war, and the war against ourselves. By examining the evidence of political assassinations, it is possible to understand how the country was misled down the line by a select, elite minority.

The strategists, aided by clandestine and covert planning, do not represent the people or the interests of the people in the United States.


1. Clandestine rearmament of Germany: Inspection for Disarmament, edited by Seymour Melman (Columbia Press, 1968), pp 202-219.

2. Illegal attitude to Geneva Accord: Pentagon Papers (New York Times paperback; Bantam Press, 1970), p. xi.  [Also cited in Mae Brussell works.]

3. Clandestine armies of U.S. home and abroad: Invisible Government by David Wise & Thomas Ross (Bantam edition, 1965); Espionage Establishment by David Wise & Thomas Ross (Random House, 1967).

4. Kennedy, Dealey: Warfare State by Fred Cook (Macmillan Press, 1967).

5. "Splinter CIA": New York Times, April 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 1966.

6. Called a traitor: Hearings before the Commission, XVIII, p. 835.

7. Escalation of War: Computers and Automation (December, 1971), p. 39

8. Containing Communism: Encyclopedia Almanac, 1970 (New York Times), p. 544.

9. Eisenhower surrendered power to me: Conversation with McMillan, New York Times, April 24, 1971.

10. State Department in my hat: To Move a Nation by Roger Hilsman (Doubleday & Co., 1967), p. 67.

11. Dulles brothers: New York Times, April 29, 1966. 12. Allen Dulles, 1942,

12. Switzerland: Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War by Clarence Lasby (Atheneum Press, 1971); Saturday Review, Dec. 11, 1971.

13. Rounding up nazis: Ibid., Project Paperclip, p. 5.

14. Nazis in industry, schools, factories in U.S.: Ibid., Project Paperclip.

15. Collapse of Germany, Gehlen: Ibid., Invisible Government, pp. 134-135.

16. Gehlen, Hooves, Dulles, Pentagon: Secret War for Europe by Louis Hogan (Stein & Day, 1969), pp. 35-36. 17. OSS became CIA, Dulles, Helms: Ibid., The Espionage Establishment, pp. 115-116, 132-176.

18. Air Transport Command: Nixon by Ralph De Toledano (Duell, Sloan, Peatce), p. 35.

19. Alameda, air contacts: Ibid., Nixon, p. 37.

20. New York, Contracts: My Six Crises, Pyramid Books, 1962), p. 81.

21. Importation of Germans: Ibid., Project Paperclip, pp. 4-5

22. German atrocities: Ibid., Project Paperclip, p. 61. 23. Anticipation for arrival: Ibid., Project Paperclip, p. 64. 24. Department of Navy: Ibid., Project Paperclip, p. 66. Z5. Telegram instrument of fate: ibid., Nixon, p. 37. 26. Advertisement, Congressman: Ibid., Nixon, pp. 39-40. 27. Call, "Are you a republican?": Ibid., Nixon, p. 40. 28. Herman Perry: Milhous (film) Emil Di Antonio.

29. Bank of America : Ibid., Warfare State, p. 23. 30. Richard Nixon selected by old guard: New York Times, Feb. 16, 1972.

31. Evidence locked up: Computers & Automation (October 1971), pp. 4145.

32. Alger Hiss, Nye Committee: Friendship and Fratricide by Meyer Zeligs (Viking Press), p. 192.

33. Chambers, maybe German spy: Ibid., Friendship and Fratricide, p. 3

34. JFK, evidence locked up, altered: Computers and Automation May, June, July, Nov., 1970; March, May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct, Nov., Dec., 1971; Jan., Feb., 1972.

35. Robert Kennedy murder: Computers and Automation, Aug., Oct, 1970; April, 1971.

36 Missing Woodstock typewriter Ibid., Friendship and Fratricide, p. 368.

37. Hiss, death of friends: American Opinion, Feb., 1971, pp. 51-53.

38. Isaac Levine, Chambers: Ibid., Friendship and Fratricide, p. 23.

39. Levine, Marine: Hearings Before the Commission, Vol. XXIV, pp. 24-W.

40. Hiss, "Nixon in something beyond scope": Ibid., Friendship and Fratricide, p. 282-283.

41. Lincoln Club, secrets: New York Times, Feb. 16, 1972.

This articles was reprinted by:
Prevailing Winds Research
P. O. Box 23511
Santa Barbara, CA 93121

Permindex and Double-Chek Agents and Activities

After a question was posed by a reader of this blog, I noticed a draft which I failed to post earlier. It relates to research done a few years ago pertaining to what prompted the publication of the Torbitt Document in 1969.

What did "Torbitt" Know?

David Copeland's Manuscript
David Copeland (writing under the pseudonym of William Torbitt) wrote in Chapter VI of the Torbitt Document, entitled "Permindex and Double-Chek Agents and their Activities") that Double-Chek Corporation
a Florida corporation organized and operated by the CIA and the American counterpart of Permindex and Centro Mondiale Comerciale, was taken over by Division Five of the FBI and was used as one of the principal funding agencies for President Kennedy's death planners.
In other words, Copeland, through information he gleaned from various underground sources while his first wife was employed at Consolidated Vultee Aircraft in Fort Worth, compared Double Chek's organization to that of Permindex and CMC--all CIA proprietaries which he thought were "taken over" by J. Edgar Hoover in order to pay the assassins of President Kennedy.

The Italian Centro Mondiale Commerciale (translated "world trade center") was a creature of the national security authority Americans set up to comply with requirements of various international pacts at the conclusion of World War II to fight further Soviet expansion. These mutual security agreements set the stage for "stay behind" military forces which continued to police Europe in order to prevent Stalin's military from taking advantage of the devastation. At the same time, other funds were funneled into companies designed to strengthen the ability of the locals to defend themselves. Presumably the CMC was a front company into which American money was funneled for either or both of such purposes.

Not until 1973 was the existence of Double-Check as a CIA proprietary company confirmed by the Church Committee Report.

From Church Committee Reports, page 263
In describing the Defense Industrial Security Command, Copeland seemed to rely on the gun-running activities in which David Ferrie and Jack Ruby had often been engaged, but he also used information supplied by criminal defendants he had represented. After mentioning the allegations made by Donald P. Norton connecting Ferrie to Oswald, as well as statements made by Jules Rocco Kimble about Ferrie's contacts in Montreal, he stated that Walter Sheridan "was the liaison man with Bobby Kennedy for Joe Carroll of the Defense Intelligence Agency."

One of the agents employed by Hoover's Espionage Section [also referred to as Division 5 or the Domestic Intelligence section] was W. Marvin Gheesling, who took Lee Oswald off the FLASH warning only one day before alarms would have been set off while he was in contact with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. [See page 178 of James Douglas, JFK and the Unspeakable.]

Mexican Assassins in Texas in 1952
David Copeland aka William Torbitt wrote the following, concerning the assassination cabal housed somewhere in Mexico:

The Free Cuba Committee, anti-Communist Russian Solidarists, A.C.C.C. and Division Five of the FBI obtained the team of world's best Mexican riflemen through the offices of Double-Chek Corporation, an American based subsidiary of Permindex, the FBI and CIA funded Swiss corporation, and Centro Mondiale Comerciale, also known as World Trade Center Corporation, another FBI and CIA funded corporation which moved from Rome to Johannesburg, South Africa in 1962. Both of these corporations had been used by J. Edgar Hoover to fund the 1961 and 1962 assassination attempts on General DeGaulle.

The existence of the espionage section of the FBI's nest of professional assassins in Mexico began under the supervision of Albert Osborne in 1943. It was Hoover's brain child and he has kept a close management on the unit of twenty-five to thirty expert riflemen and continues to do so in 1969. He has allowed the Defense Intelligence Agency to use these men but they remain as his charges. In 1952 two of the professionals, Mario (El Turko) Sapet and Alfredo Cervantes, took a private contract to assassinate Jake Floyd, a District Judge in Alice, Texas, and a bitter enemy of George Parr of Duval County. These men were allowed to take such private employment but [the FBI's] Division Five never knew anything concerning such unauthorized killings.

At about dusk on September 8, 1952, Sapet and Cervantes positioned themselves in a field adjacent to the rear of Floyd's house and when Buddy Floyd, Jake's 19 year old son, who resembled his father, started out of the house to the garage, Cervantes mistakenly shot Buddy through the head, killing him. Cervantes, Sapet and Nago Alaniz, George Parr's personal lawyer, were indicted for the assassination and for conspiracy to murder. Sapet was caught before he could cross the Mexican border and was given a 99 year sentence. Cervantes crossed back into Mexico where he found his Division Five assassination group, and, although Mexican authorities arrested him, political pressure was brought to bear and Alfredo has remained a free man in Mexico despite sixteen years of constant effort to extradite him by Sam Burris, the Alice District Attorney. Burris and Bill Allcorn, Special Assistant Attorney General of Texas, were unable to convict Nago Alaniz, but one of the conspirators gave Bill Allcorn pertinent information. The accomplice told Allcorn that there were twenty-five to thirty professional assassins kept in Mexico by the espionage section of the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; that these men were used to commit political assassinations all over North, South and Central America, the East European countries and in Russia; that these men were the absolute world's most accurate riflemen; they they sometimes took private contracts to kill in the United States; that the contact man for employment of the riflemen was a man named Bowen posing as an American Council of Christian Churches' missionary in Mexico; that you could reach Bowen through the owner of the St. Anthony's Hotel in Laredo, Texas.

Albert Alexander Osborne, alias John Howard Bowen, alias J.H. Owen, a charter member and employee of the A.C.C.C. [American Council of Christian Churches], met Lee Harvey Oswald and accompanied him to Mexico City in late September of 1963. Osborne or Bowen in 1942 organized and operated a Nazi black shirt group called the "Campfire Council" in the country near Knoxville, Tennessee. The "Campfire Council" was sponsored by the espionage cover group, the "American Council of Christian Churches." Osborne so vehemently opposed the United States war with Nazi Germany that during 1942, he tore down an American flag and stomped it into the ground. The neighbors complained of the pro-Nazi activities of Bowen and his young Fascists even though the rural area in Tennessee where they were located was very sparsely populated. More than six witnesses on the bus trip from Laredo to Mexico City placed Osborne with Lee Oswald in his company as a definite traveling companion. The two stayed together during the entire trip and sat together on the bus.

On February 8, l964, Osborne was interviewed by the FBI and lied to them about his name among other things. He gave them the name John Howard Bowen and gave them the following statement: Bowen advised that he has been in the Russellville, Alabama area, speaking at various rural Baptist Churches, and has been residing at the residence of Wylie Uptain, Rural Route, Russellville, Alabama. He stated that he intended leaving the Russellville, Alabama area, February 11, 1964, enroute back to Laredo, Texas by way of New Orleans, Louisiana.

Bowen stated to the best of his knowledge he was born at Chester, Pennsylvania on January 12, 1885, and his father's name was James A. Bowen, and his mother was Emily Bowen. He did not know his parents, but he was reared in an orphanage in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His grandmother, Sarah Hall, participated to a limited extent in giving him guidance and shelter during the early years of his life. His grandmother and relatives are all deceased, and he has no known relatives of any kind. . . . Bowen stated he considers himself an itinerant gardener and preacher. He was formerly a member of the First Baptist Church at Knoxville, Tennessee, and more recently was a member of the First Baptist Church at Laredo, Texas. He has visited and worshiped at the latter church intermittently for the past twenty years. . . . He considers his home to be the St. Anthony Hotel, Laredo, Texas, and he is well known there by the manager, Oscar Ferrina. He has been residing at the hotel intermittently for the past twenty years, and has made trips to Mexico for the past twenty years as an itinerant preacher. . . .
On February 20, 1964, Osborne was interviewed by FBI agents in Laredo, Texas and repeated the falsehoods told in the earlier statement. Then on March 5, 1964, he told FBI agents at Nashville, Tennessee the amazing story which follows. Please remember that this is the man who was such a dedicated Nazi that during World War II, he tore down the American flag and stomped it into the ground in protest against the United States war with Hitler's Nazi Germany. A part of the amazing statement follows:
Albert Osborne, whose permanent address is 920 Salinas, Box 308, Laredo, Texas, was interviewed at his temporary place of residence at the Central YMCA, Nashville, Tennessee, where is registered under the name of John H. Bowen. (Box 308 is the address of the St. Anthony Hotel in Laredo).

At the outset of the interview, Osborne denied his true identity and claimed that his name was John H. Bowen; however he later admitted that his correct name is Albert Osborne and he furnished the following background information concerning himself. Osborne indicated that he was born November 12, 1888 at Grimsby, England, to James Osborne and Emile Cole Osborne, both of whom are deceased. He identified his brothers as Walter Osborne, Grimsby, England; Arthur Osborne, Grimsby, England; William Osborne, deceased, and Frank Osborne, deceased. . . . .

Osborne admitted that he had been untruthful in three previous interviews concerning his own identity and had furnished false information concerning John H. Bowen, whom he had previously indicated was an acquaintance for whom he, Osborne, had been frequently mistaken. . . . . Osborne was advised that his photograph had been positively identified by other English speaking people on the Red Arrow Bus from Laredo, Texas to Mexico City on September 26, 27, 1963. Osborne again denied that he was on a bus with any other English speaking people and that he himself spoke no English to anyone on the bus.
Rev. W. L. Hluchan; click to enlarge.
Osborne's associates said he had lived in Central Mexico since about 1942. One close associate said Osborne had a mission in Texmelucan, State of Puebla, Mexico, and "his mission consisted have no home or ties." Rev. Walter Laddie Hluchan of Eagle Pass, Texas, [see newspaper excerpt, right] said, "Osborne has for many years given religious instruction to Mexican boys who resided at his residence." Oscar Ferrino, owner of the St. Anthony Hotel, Laredo, Texas, said Osborne "is operating a school for approximately 25 to 30 boys" in Pueblo, Mexico. Ferrino has known and taken mail and messages for Osborne since 1942. When not in Mexico supervising his "missionaries," Osborne traveled regularly to Austin, Dallas and Tyler, Texas. In Dallas he visited one Cortez and H.L. Hunt. Cortez was reported to be one of the assassins in the 26 volumes published by the Warren Commission. The same volumes connect a Saunders from Tyler Texas in the plot with Cortez.

Albert Osborne was in Clay Shaw's office at 124 Camp Street, New Orleans on October 10, 1963. [Note: This is the same day the alarm would have gone off about Lee Oswald's contacts with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, had not the FLASH being discontinued by the FBI agent, W. Marvin Gheesling.]

Later the same day he was in the office of Maurice Brooks Gatlin, the FBI transporter and Guy Bannister, the FBI Section Five Southern Manager, at their office at 544 Camp Street, New Orleans. From there, Osborne went directly into Mexico City where on the 17th or 18th of September, 1963, he was [had previously been?] seen by a Mexican detective with the man posing as Oswald. A Cuban Negro delivered a large sum of money to the man posing as Oswald as a partial payment for his part in the assassination. Osborne, alias John Howard Bowen, was discovered to have another person working with him who also used the alias John Howard Bowen. The second person also travelling as Bowen was Fred Lee Chrismon [sic; Crisman], another agent for the munitions makers police agency, the Defense Industrial Security Command.

Chrismon [sic] also posed as a missionary and also used other aliases. Among the cognomens for Chrismon [sic] were Fred Lee, Jon Gould and Jon Gold. Osborne and Chrismon [sic] also bore a marked resemblance and appeared to be about the same age. Chrismon [sic] was a Syrian immigrant and had been closely associated with Osborne since the 1920's. Chrismon [sic], Osborne and their riflemen charges in Mexico were based at Clint Murchison's huge ranch when not posing as missionaries in other areas of Mexico.
In addition to the misspelling of Crisman's name, the so-called Torbitt Document above also was incorrect in stating that he was a Syrian immigrant. Frederick Lee Crisman was born in Tacoma, Washington, and both his father (a WWI veteran) and mother (the former Eva Pitcher) were born in Iowa. His paternal grandfather, Frederick M. Crisman was born in Pennsylvania in 1849. 

While residing in Laredo, John Howard Bowen, was reported in 1944 to be organizing the "Campfire Baseball League" comprised of players ages 16 and under. Bowen urged "captains, coaches and managers" to attend a meeting "between the Red Cross building and the Colonial Hotel on Hidalgo Street." 

More than a year later, the following item appeared in that same paper:

Missionary Returns
John Howard Bowen has returned after a several weeks visit to cities in the north and east. While away he enjoyed his favorite sport of skiing. He was a former missionary in India and Arabia, and while away visited in New York, Washington, D. C., Nashville, and the estwhile [sic] "Secret City" Oak Ridge Tenn. He spoke in the chapel at Oak Ridge where 75,000 families are housed, as well in other cities he visited. [Laredo Times, Jan. 31, 1946]
A few weeks after his return, on Feb. 17, 1946, the following letter appeared on the editorial page of the Laredo Times:
The Editor
Laredo Times

I have travelled around the world twice. I have crossed the seas on North German Lloyds, Orient Lines, P and O Steamers, Cunard Lines and the French Lines. I have rode in all manners of vehicles, house-boats, sampans, junks, and canoes. I have travelled in all kinds of wheels vehicles tongas, ekkas, drokas, bashes, wheelbarrows and jinrikhas. The jinrikisha, is a large baby carriage which is pulled by a man. Its name means "manpulled-car" hence, it is the original pullman car. I have travelled, on elephants, buffaloes, camels, Mexican burros, mules, horses and afoot. I have swam the rivers Jordon, in Palestine, Ganges, in India, Nile, in Egypt, and the Congo, in Africa, as well as the rivers of America. I have walked with pilgrims on the road to the holy city of Benares, in India, with the Sikhs to the Golden Temple, with Mohammedans on the trackless wastes r of the Arabian desert to Mecca, and the Blue Mosque, in Cairo, in Egypt, and accompanied David Solemon Cohen, the Clerk of the City of Jerusalem, to the Temple there. I have taught school in India, Arabia, and Africa, and in all my observations and travels, I have never seen a better spirit of cooperation and brotherhood, than was manifested at the Brotherhood banquet at the Plaza Hotel on Friday night.

Here ten Protestant congregations, and two Jewish congregations gathered in the finest spirit of brotherhood, and it is indeed a credit to the City of Laredo, to have religious leaders who believe like the great Jewish Apostle to the Gentiles, that "From one forefather He (God) has created every nation of mankind, and made them live on the face of the earth". There can be no longer any desert solitudes. The races have become people.

"The blood of the people! Changeless tide
Through century, creed and race
Stilll one, as the sweet salt sea is one
Though tempered by sun and place
"One love, one hope, one duty theirs!
No matter the time or kin.
There is no separate heart-beat
In all the races of men."
John Howard Bowen                                         
Box 635 Laredo, Texas                                      
Poem from World Service of the Methodist Episcopal Church


THE DAILY GLEANER, Kingston, Jamaica - December 14, 1949

Mr. William G. (Bill) Gaudet, head of Latin American Reports, Inc. in New Orleans, arrived in the island on Friday afternoon last on the first leg of a complete Latin American tour. He left on Saturday afternoon for Port au Prince, Haiti.

Bill Gaudet of The Latin American Report

January 24, 1967

Credit U.S. Diplomats With
Ending Nicaraguan Uprising

MANAGUA, Nicaragua (AP)—U S. diplomats were credited today with ending a 20-hour uprising against the Nicaraguan government, an uprising that killed 21 and wounded more than 100 Nicaraguans. Through U.S. Embassy mediation, the rebellion ended Monday night when the rebels freed 117 foreign hostages, including 89 North Americans held in the Grand Hotel, which had been turned into a fortress. The rebels surrendered their arms and were allowed to go free.

Waved Bedsheet

The American role was dramatized when Bill Gaudet, publisher of a New Orleans monthly, the Latin American Report, followed by two American nuns ran out of the hotel waving a bedsheet as a white flag. The nuns were Jeanne Dienan of St. Paul, Minn., and Mary Martha Meyer of Los Angeles of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who were attending a nurses' convention. Gaudet said he told rebel leaders in the hotel he was going out to try to get the shooting stopped, then grabbed the sheet and yelled: "Who will go with me?" The nuns volunteered, and the three made a dash to a corner where there were National Guard officers.
Taken to Embassy
After Gaudet asked the guards to hold their fire he and the nuns were taken to the U.S. Embassy. The rebels against the Somoza family, which has ruled Nicaragua for more than 30 years, had holed up in the hotel. National Guardsmen with tanks surrounded the hotel while insurgent leaders negotiated with representatives of President Lorenzo Guerrero in the presence of U.S. diplomats. A cheer went up from a crowd outside as the first U.S. hostages emerged from the hotel. They included uniformed but unarmed members of the U.S. military mission. An American flag appeared over the second-floor balcony.
The hostages included a number of North American tourists and businessmen staying at the hotel. They were given shelter in the homes of U.S. diplomats and U.S. residents in Managua. Inside the hotel, soldiers sorted out a small arsenal of rebel weapons, including 10 rifles and 25 pistols of ancient make, a quantity of ammunition, knives and saws.
 The short-lived revolt erupted Sunday after a political rally conducted by Fernando Aguero, Conservative party candidate for president against Gen Anastasio Somoza Jr., standardbearer of the Liberal party and an heir to Latin America's oldest political dynasty.

The "Latin American Report" was allegedly published by Citizens Committee for a Free Cuba Inc., of Washington, D.C., and Miami, Fla. Bill Gaudet, from New Orleans and a graduate of Tulane,  had been a journalist for several years prior to WWII for the International News Service when his name began to appear in connection with the monthly paper. Paul Bethel, an attache in Havana for three years before Castro's takeover, ran the Citizens Committee for a Free Cuba and had some involvement in the Latin American Report in the 1960s.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

The Presidents Bush: Walker Genealogy Part IV

Of Pilgrims

Death of Joseph Beakey, 1858

Initially setting out to explore the family of the woman who became the wife of David Davis Walker, I happened upon a genealogical study published in 1903 by two women, each of whom was a society editor of a different St. Louis newspaper. When looking deeper into the background of these editors, it became apparent that each had her own connection to members of St. Louis' elite society, whom they dubbed "Americans of Gentle Birth." One of those families was D.D. and Martha Walker. Mrs. D.D. (Martha Beakey) Walker's ancestors were traced in that book to Pilgrim forefathers through her mother, Mary Ann Bangs Beakey, who became David Davis Walker's mother-in-law in 1862, four years after her husband died on the Minnehaha riverboat explosion.

Mary Ann's father, according to his brother, Methodist minister Nathan Bangs, D.D., had been born in Stratford, Connecticut in 1781, descended from Edward Bangs, a Pilgrim, who arrived in Plymouth colony in 1623 on the third ship to arrive there. Their father Lemuel Bangs was a schoolteacher and land surveyor who grew up near in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, married Rebecca Keeler of Connecticut and with her raised nine children. Lemuel moved his family to Fairfield, Connecticut, around 1782, and from there, in 1791, to what would later be known as Stamford, Delaware County, New York, before moving farther north to New Brunswick, Canada.

Nathan Bangs, uncle
Lemuel had given up his Puritan upbringing in favor of the Episcopal Church, but all of the children with the exception of Mary Ann's father, Elijah Bangs, adopted the Methodist faith. Elijah had left home at age sixteen to go to sea, around 1797, shortly before his family moved to Canada. Elijah shipped out from Philadelphia, and he  eventually rose to command ships in the East Indies trade before and after the War of 1812. His story was reported to his brother Nathan, who visited him for the first time fifteen years after Elijah had left home.  

Elijah's marriage to Esther Stackhouse in 1807 ended with her death in Philadelphia in 1819, leaving several minor children, including Mary Ann Bangs, who was only two years old when her mother died. The eldest child, Henry, born in France in 1808, would have been only eleven at that time. Rev. Nathan Bangs, who saw Elijah in 1811, wrote in his journal that his brother had been detained by French under Napoleon's 1807 Milan decree, for trading wines from Bordeaux with the British, thus earning imprisonment for two years in Dunkirk, in northern France, for himself and his wife who gave birth to Henry there. Following their release from the French prison, Elijah was again captured while engaging in the same trade, but this time by the British, in 1811.[1]

Historical records compiled by genealogists confirm that Captain Bangs continued going away to sea, traveling as far afield as Amsterdam, where his ship was wrecked in 1820. A year later he was in Puerto Rico and in Brazil in 1826. Esther had returned after from her French imprisonment to Philadelphia, where she died in 1819. Nathan Bangs' writings intimate that he kept in contact with Elijah, though Nathan did not reveal what became of the young children "left motherless" upon Esther's death. Who took care of Mary Ann and her siblings? With whom was Mary Ann living when she met Joseph Beakey shortly before their marriage in Philadelphia in 1840?

In Part III, we concluded there may have been a close connection with Esther's brother, Powell Stackhouse, who manufactured metal stoves, since Joseph had left his home in Emmitsburg, Maryland, in order to learn that same trade. The couple were possibly introduced to each other there. Although the Stackhouse family had long been Quakers, even tracing their immigration to America back to the days when William Penn arrived, Mary Ann, whose mother had been a Quaker who married outside her family's faith, had no strong attachment to any church, and she married Joseph Ambrose Beakey, a German Catholic, in the St. Augustine Catholic Church in Philadelphia. They returned to live in Emmitsburg for the next eight years before relocating to St. Louis.

Mary Ann's elder sister, Rebecca, in 1830 had married Anson Steel in Philadelphia, rearing possibly as many as sixteen children! But she still had room to take her father in to live with her until his death. The 1850 census indicates the Steels (with 9 children from ages 5-19 still at home) lived in Camden, N.J., that year, with Elijah Bangs, then 72 years old, making his home with them. Mary Ann Bangs Beakey had by then moved west with her new family to St. Louis. 

Of Papists 

There was, however, a much greater influence on Martha's life from her father's German Catholic roots, shown in Part III, than from the Pilgrim ancestors from which she stemmed.

Martha's father had brought his family to St. Louis from Emmitsburg in 1848 when she was seven. David Davis Walker arrived in town in 1857, met Martha, and married her in 1862. Both Catholics, they most likely met at a church gathering. The couple began raising their own family in St. Louis in the midst of the civil war, while D.D., as he was always known, "won his way, grade by grade, to a junior partnership" at Crow, McCreery dry goods company.[2] 

Jesuit Training of the Walker Boys 

Their firstborn, a son named Joseph Sidney (or Sydney) Walker, was born in 1863, followed closely by another son, named for one of D. D.'s partners in the dry goods business, William Hargadine Walker, who as a  child was called Willy. In 1876, when Sidney was 13 and Willy 12, they were listed under their full names as students at Saint Louis University, a private Jesuit college founded by the same priests who had set up the Jesuit school in Emmittsburg, Maryland, which their grandfathers, George E. Walker and Joseph Beakey, had attended.[3] The third son, David D. Walker, Jr., born in 1870, was enrolled there during the 1882-83 term. D.D. Walker, Sr. was a member of the university's board of trustees for many years.

Sidney's name appeared in the Catalogue numerous times for accolades, often on the same page as another St. Louis lad born in 1865, Edward Reilly Stettinius, a junior student during the same year as J. Sydney Walker. Both boys were distinguished in Greek, Latin and English, while "Sydney" also excelled in math and history as well. Stettinius would later become president of the notorious Diamond Match Company, a director of the Morgan banking company, and in 1918 assistant secretary of war. He died in Locust Valley, NY, in 1925, ten years after the state's census showed William H. Walker living in that same area of Long Island. E. R. Stettinius Jr. was destined to become Secretary of State in the Franklin Roosevelt and Truman administrations while his sister, Betty, in 1928 married Juan T. Trippe (Yale 1922) of Pan American Airways. This couple would become very close to the Prescott Bush family in Greenwich, Connecticut, where Edward Jr. died at the age of 49, but that investigation is for another post.

Walker Children and Their Marriages

1. J. Sidney Walker
Gibson Man
When Sidney's engagement to Katherine (Kate) Mudd, was announced in July 1898, it was news to no one. The two had been an item for some time. Described as "the Gibson man of St. Louis," Sidney epitomized the handsome, adventuresome, and debonaire, albeit somewhat confused, man in cartoons of Charles Dana Gibson of that day. 

Kate's father, Dr. Henry Hodgen Mudd (see page 1581) was not only a surgeon but, as a nephew of one of St. Louis' most eminent medical practitioners, he was employed as a professor at Washington University's medical school. Kate's brother, John Hodgen Mudd, was the same age as Sidney's younger brother, Bert, and like him studied law at Washington University in St. Louis. Although Bert would enter business and finance after graduation, John practiced law. Kate's sister, Edith Mudd, married Isaac Cook, Jr., a Harvard graduate who drowned at their summer home Linkside, in Biddeford Pool, Maine in 1926.

Sidney was also considered a great horseman, having played on the first polo team established after the St. Louis Country Club was organized in 1892. John F. Shepley (Yale 1880) and A.L. Shapleigh played on that team with him. There was even a horse with his name which ran at the St. Louis Fair Grounds track. Sidney died in St. Louis in 1912 at the age of 49. According to the December 8, 1912 St. Louis Post-Dispatch: 
A cold, caught by exposure after a tennis match, proved fatal yesterday to J. Sidney Walker, secretary of the Ely & Walker Dry Goods Co. and a director of the Mercantile Trust Co. He died at his home at  Hortense place, from the bursting of a blood vessel in his lungs, caused by violent coughing. The funeral will be held from the residence at 1 p. m. tomorrow, and will be conducted by the Rev. Father O'Connor of the New Cathedral Chapel. Walker, who was 49 years old, was an adept at tennis. Wednesday afternoon he played in a hard-contested match at the Country Club, and while perspiring from his exertion, neglected the customary rubdown and change of clothing, and sat in the clubhouse in his tennis flannels. Exposure then, or during his ride back to the city. caused a cold. Dr. W.E. Fischel visited the Walker home Thursday and Friday, and made another visit yesterday morning. He believed at that time that the danger of pneumonia had passed. A short time after the physician's departure, Mrs. Walker heard her husband coughing violently, and entering the room, saw him fall back on the pillow, dead. Walker was the eldest of five sons of D. D. Walker, founder of the Ely & Walker firm. His brother Theodore (Ted) Walker was accidentally killed a few years ago by the explosion of a gasoline engine on his country place near Clarksville, Mo. The surviving brothers are G. Herbert Walker, broker; D. D. Walker Jr., first vice-president of Ely & Walker, and William H. Walker. Missouri's national committeeman of the Progressive party. Mrs Walker was Miss Katherine Mudd before their marriage in 1898. Walker was a member of the St. Louis. Noonday, Country and Racquet clubs.
2. William Hargadine Walker.

 In 1891 William H. married Elise Papin, a descendant of both the Laclede and Chouteu families who had founded St. Louis in about 1762.[4] He entered Ely & Walker Dry Goods, becoming its president in 1902 upon his father's retirement. 

Between 1910 and 1915 William also retired from Ely & Walker and moved with Elise to a large home on Feeks Lane at Locust Valley, Long Island, New York, next to "Birchwood," one of several homes owned by Anson Wood Burchard, president of General Electric.[5] 

One of William and Elise's two daughters, Marie Adelaide, after marrying  Daniel Casey Nugent (Harvard 1911), son of a St. Louis retail dry goods merchant, moved to the Upper East Side in Manhattan, as did her mother, Elise Walker (separated from her husband by 1924 and divorced by 1930), while William moved to Santa Barbara, California. He later married Gladys and died in Montecito near Santa Barbara in 1935.
3. Rose Marion Walker Pittman.
 The third Walker child, born 1867, was a daughter, Rose Marion, dubbed Maysie (though often spelled as either Mazie, Maizie or Maisie), who married Asa Pittman, son of Mrs. H. D. Pittman, the society reporter for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch mentioned in footnote 1.
Maysie's daughter, Martha Pittman

Maysie died in 1896, followed three years later by Asa, leaving their minor daughter, Martha (named for her grandmother), an orphan at the age of seven, to be reared by her maternal grandparents, who sent her to a Catholic convent in Paris for a time. She returned for holidays to  Kennebunkport, Maine, as shown in a 1910 news item (inset right) written when Martha was 18 years old. Point Vesuvius, mentioned in the news clip, was the peninsula formerly called Damon Park renamed Walker's Point. Before acquiring the land in 1902, the Walkers had a cottage no later than 1884. We will discuss more about that Maine location below.

4. David Davis Walker, Jr.
When Maysie was almost three years old, her third brother, David Davis, Jr., was born in 1870. Like his two older brothers, David also attended what we now call middle school at Saint Louis University. Prior to that time, however, it appears that their father was working long hours building up his name in the dry goods business. James Cox wrote in Old and New St. Louis: A Concise History of the Metropolis of the West and Southwest (1894):
his ambition to succeed had impelled him to try his powers beyond their limits and because of this he was compelled, by 1878, to withdraw from the partnership. Then for the next two years he gave himself up to rest and the recovery of his health, returning to St. Louis in 1880.
53 Vandeventer Place - Walker home
Unfortunately, Cox does not tell us where the family went during those two years, but he does reveal that, by 1894, the date of publication, the Walkers had added two more sons to the family: George Herbert (Bert), born in 1875; and James Theodore (Ted) in 1877.

David D. Jr., born in 1870, also like his two older brothers, became an executive at the dry goods company. Single until the age of 30, he lived with his parents at at 53 Vandeventer Place, near the western end of the Catholic campus. Today the site of their home is part of the grounds of Saint Louis University, but when first developed, Vandeventer Avenue's "mansions were built on a scale never before seen in St. Louis, and it took the private place concept many steps beyond Lucas and Benton [Places]."[6]

By 1900, however, Vandeventer was already bustling and noisy, and St. Louis' upper-class families had begun relocating to Westmoreland and Portland Places, closing off the private streets behind massive gates and walls. Late in 1900 David married a girl named Louise Filley, a member of one of St. Louis' oldest families, to be more fully described in a blog post to follow this one. 

5. G. Herbert "Bert" Walker.
Stonyhurst College in England
When the fourth son, George Herbert "Bert" Walker, reached the age of seventeen in 1892, instead of taking him into the dry goods business, the Walkers sent him to England for further education. Legend goes that young Bert sailed with his own valet in 1892  to attend Stonyhurst, another Jesuit institution with strong ties to the same Archbishop John Carroll who looms so significantly in the education of previous generations of the Walker-Beakey family.[7] 
Further research into what has previously been reported makes it clear that Bert was not the first son to attend Stonyhurst. His older brother David also was sent there in 1887, and his younger brother, Ted, would follow Bert there. (See Part V to come).

In 1894, we have been told, Bert left Stonyhurst, but, at that point discrepancies about what followed emerge.  One version written by
Dave Shedloski and published at the USGA website has it that he enrolled at the University of Edinburgh as a pre-med student for one year, and then returned to St. Louis. Bert's New York Times obituary recited the same version of his education which appeared in his listing in Who's Who, merely that he had an L.L.B. from Washington University Law School in 1897.

Thus, Bert's graduation from law school occurred only a few months after the Ely & Walker warehouse located at the southwest corner of Washington Avenue and N. 8th Street burned in March 1897, in a blaze that killed two firemen and did more than one million dollars in damage. According to newspapers, John R. Lionberger had constructed the 7-story building at 800 Washington Avenue (today the site of the Renaissance Grand Hotel) in 1889, five years before his death.[8].

12 Hortense Place
Two years after the conflagration, Bert married Lulu (short for Lucretia) Wear, daughter of an Ely & Walker competitor, James H. Wear, who was president of J. H. Wear, Boogher and Company, Importers and Jobbers of Dry Goods.[9] A segment covering the Wear family will appear at this blog shortly. The newlyweds at first rented a house at 3800 Delmar where the first child, daughter Nancy, and two servants lived in 1900. They were in the process of building their new Italian Renaissance 15-room home at 12 Hortense Place, which they occupied with their two daughters, three sons and six servants. A fourth son would come along in 1913, as indicated on the 1920 census.

Bert was a very active clubman. He was a member in 1913 of the exclusive Log Cabin Club with Breckinridge Jones, Augustus Busch, Missouri governor David R. Francis and only a few others (only 20 members listed in the directory). A much larger group was the Noonday Club. He was was president of the Racquet Club, whose members included his three older brothers, as well as Adolphus Busch III, D. R. Francis, Jr. and Sr., John H. Holliday, Ludwig and Max Kotany, five members of the Lambert family, three McKittrick family members, W. C. Nixon, Arthur and Joseph Wear, and Thomas H. West.

G. H. Walker was vice president of the Sunset Hill Country Club, to which the Anheuser and Bush beer-brewing families belonged, along with a number of other eminent and not-so-eminent St. Louis families, including the Lamberts, Kotanys, Mudds, Papins--names from which the Walker men and women would select spouses. Not content with one country club, the Walkers also joined the St. Louis Country Club, which included other elites such as the Samuel F. Pryor family as well as Clarkson Potter, numerous Simmons family members, names like Fordyce, Francis and Jones. Max Kotany was a member, as were the Lambert brothers, Gerard, Albert Bond, and Marion. A. C. Church's name appeared on the rolls of the club, as did Dr. M. B. Clopton. James H. Wear was club secretary. 

Another club to which they belonged was the St. Louis Club.

D.D. and Martha finally were able to retire from business and to leave St. Louis by 1902, the year they bought property in Maine, although there is evidence that suggests they had begun spending summer vacations at Kennebunkport as early as 1899, the same year Bert was married to Loulie Wear. That evidence is the application for a passport dated 1899, signed by Ted's father, D.D. Walker, Sr. at Kennebunkport, Maine.

Gil Troy wrote in his book, Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980's (p. 301) that the Walker family had vacationed "on this coastal gem [Kennebunkport] since the 1880s," and that they purchased the land for $20,000 in 1902. It appears that D.D. and Martha moved into an existing structure, while Bert began building his own vacation houses on the adjacent land.

The "big house" was profiled in 1905 in American Homes and Gardens magazine as "Rock Ledge, the summer home of George H. Walker, Esq." In the summer of 1908 the St. Louis Post-Dispatch reported Mr. and Mrs. G. Herbert (Lucretia Wear), were spending the summer at "Surf Ledge," Kennebunkport, Maine, along with Mr. and Mrs. Sidney (Katherine Mudd) Walker. In 1980 the G.H. Walker home was sold to the Bush family, possibly in anticipation of his election to the Presidency, which did not occur, however, until 1988.

Old Mission Santa Barbara
In 1905 Bert's parents also acquired a home in Santa Barbara, California. The 1910 census showed them living a block away from the beautiful and historic Old Mission Santa Barbara, pictured here as it was in 1898. The California home was to become the Walkers' winter residence.

Citing Walker family gossip in his 2008 book, Jacob Weisberg reported that the reason for Martha's insistence upon Bert's attending Stonyhurst was her desire to escape the "ill-bred German immigrants" who dominated St. Louis' Catholic education. Part III shows the irony of that statement, if indeed it was factual, given the fact her own grandfather, Joseph Beakey, had been a German Catholic immigrant, as had her mother's parents, the Schreiners. Weisberg also wrote that Bert "broke with his parents" in every way other than moving from St. Louis, by "rejecting his father's Republican politics and his Catholic faith," while D.D. and Martha not only "boycotted the wedding," but also later bequeathed Bert's share of their estate to the Catholic Church. 

Our research has revealed, however, that by 1888, D.D. and his partners had been already begun supporting Democrats, such as David R. Francis, in local elections. Other men whose names appeared in the endorsement of Francis included D.D.'s partner Hargadine and Bert's future father-in-law, J.H. Wear and his partner, Murray Carleton (more on the Wear family in a subsequent post).

The legend about the rift and boycott seems to be supported only by interviews with family members, since, when Martha died in 1917, her will, probated in Missouri, clearly did not leave her property to the church. Instead, she bequeathed all her jewelry to Maysie's daughter, Martha Pittman, to whom she also left her interest in Walker's Point Maine. The Santa Barbara estate initially was devised to the only son of their youngest son, Ted who died in 1906. 

Before D.D. Sr. died in late 1918, he was living in Santa Barbara after his wife's death when it was announced that he had been sued by his sons, alleging that he was mentally incompetent, which he fought until his his death.

Granddaughter Martha Pittman

 When Martha Pittman, in 1919, obtained a passport to travel to Japan and China, she stated it was her first time to obtain one, although she had lived in Paris and Italy during 1904-1906, most likely sent away to boarding school. A note attached to her application was dated in December 1919 and signed by Alfred L. Marilley, referring vaguely to work Martha would do for him during her travel. As counsel to the Army, Navy and Civilian Board of Boxing Control, incorporated in early 1919 to legalize boxing under certain closely supervised conditions, Marilley answered to Major A. J. Drexel Biddle, the first president of that new organization. Biddle did not resign his commission from the Marine Corps until the summer of 1920. One of the boxing board's first lines of inquiry was whether Jack Dempsey, winner of the first big fight after the sport was legalized, had evaded his wartime obligations, as alleged by his former wife. 

Boxing had long been of interest to residents of Hortense Place in St. Louis. Not only was Bert Walker named amateur boxing champion at some point, but his neighbor, Marion J. Lambert (Ted's brother-in-law), was such an ardent fan in 1912, he brought Brooklyn Tommy Sullivan to his "fashionable Hortense Place" home. Thus, it was no surprise to readers to learn that Lambert's wife divorced Lambert a year and married Adolphus Busch III. In 1917 Bert Walker was appointed chief of the American Protective League, the main function of which was to investigate men who failed to serve in the military during WWI--"slackers," as they were called. It seems likely that in that role Bert may have recruited Martha Pittman to travel the world on behalf of the attorney for the boxing board, which had set up its first fight for former champion Jack Dempsey, later accused of being a slacker during the war.

In 1922 Martha Pittman sought a new passport to travel extensively in South America, and at other times she traveled the continent of Europe and in Great Britain. During her journey from Japan to Vancouver in May 1920, Martha listed her address as 12 Hortense Place in St. Louis, once the home of her mother's younger brother, Bert Walker, but in the 1920 census she was listed at the home of her father's brother, W. D. Pittman.

In 1925 Martha married J. Mortimer Duval, who worked for the Guaranty Trust in New York. Her married name sometimes appeared in society clips relating time spent at Walker's Point in Maine. She acquired her interest in the property from her grandmother, Martha Beakey Walker, who left a half interest in the Walker's Point (formerly Damon's Point) land and buildings at Kennebunkport in trust to her granddaughter, subject to a life estate for D.D. Sr., with a contingent remainder to a grandson named James Theodore Walker, Jr. This contingent gift was, however, annulled in a codicil dated a month later, and Ted's only son was actually completely cut from her will at that time, with all the residue of her estate to be divided equally among the children of her three surviving sons, Willy, Bert and David Jr. at that time. Sidney, Maysie, and Ted, Sr. had all died by 1912. The grandson, J. Theodore, would not die until 1927. More on him later.

6. James Theodore "Ted" Walker.

The birth of the fifth son, James Theodore "Ted" Walker, occurred in 1877, when Bert was two years old. This would have been a year prior to D.D. Walker's collapse from exhaustion which began a two-year respite from business life in St. Louis. Possibly during that rest period he returned to Bloomington to visit his siblings, John Mercer Walker, George, and two sisters, all of whom had remained in Illinois. 

We know that in 1879 the family were in Minnesota when they were involved in a boiler explosion aboard a steamboat. Young Bert, age four, landed in the lake and had to be rescued. Sidney would have been 16, Willy 15, Maysie 12 and David 9 by then, but were not mentioned. Neither was the baby, Ted, who was a toddler. 

Bert's dad's first cousin, Justice David Davis
Perhaps while visiting kin, he popped in on the man for whom he was named, his first cousin, Justice David Davis, who may have regaled the family with tales of how he almost got to be the deciding vote between the 1876 disputed election between Hayes and Tilden, possibly even more contentious and fraudulent than the 2000 election:
Colonel William Pelton, urged a Democratic-Greenback coalition in the Illinois state legislature to elect Davis to the U.S. Senate. Instead of remaining on the commission, grateful to the Democrats, Davis resigned since he would soon no longer be a Supreme Court justice, but a senator. He was replaced on the commission by Justice Joseph P. Bradley, a Republican who cast all his votes for Hayes.
Four years earlier, Davis had himself run for President as a Liberal-Republican. He served in Senate in Washington until his term ended in 1883, then retired to Bloomington. We do know from news accounts that D.D. Walker was at his bedside when death came in 1886.

Unlike the three eldest sons, Ted entered Yale's Sheffield Scientific School and graduated in the class of 1899, being named as a sophomore to Delta Psi semi-secret society (also known as St. Anthony Hall). Upon graduation in 1899, he traveled to Tokyo, as part of his worldwide tour. 

Ted's Classmates. In the same class at Yale was Robert Sterling Clark, a man this blogger connected to the 1933 plot to overthrow FDR. Another classmate and brother in Delta Psi, John Cameron Greenleaf, became brother-in-law to Thatcher Magoun Adams, a partner in the Brown Brothers investment bank, which a few years later Bert would assist in merging with the Harrimans. Greenleaf also became a brother-in-law of their fellow classmate, Hamilton Fish Benjamin, when the two Delta Psi men married daughters of William B. Bacon from Boston. Following Yale, Greenleaf moved to Manhattan and, in 1903, formed an investment firm at 49 Wall Street at the corner or William Street, only one block up from Brown Brothers offices at 59 Wall at Hanover. Other members of "the Sheff" class of 1899 included Smith Academy, St. Louis, classmates such as
  1.  Leslie Helfenstein Thompson, who lived at 48 Portland Place (and whose wife, Violet, was a daughter of John W. Kauffmann). Leslie's mother was a Helfenstein, many of whose men were Yale graduates. The Helfensteins were also related to the family of Edward C. Simmons by his mother, Louise Helfenstein Simmons, and were important members of Skull and Bones.
  2.  William Windus Knight, whose father, Milton Knight, vice president of the Wabash Railroad, had been indicted in 1891 for shipping flour to Canada at rates other than those set by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Ted's Wife, Lilly Lambert

After Ted return to St. Louis from his world tour begun in 1899, he married an orphaned heiress, Lily Lambert, in June 1904. His bride lived a few doors down from brother Bert, on Hortense Place with her brothers and their wives. She was the only  daughter of Joseph Wheat Lambert, founder of Lambert Pharmacal Co. Lily's father had been born in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1851, educated with a degree in chemistry, then moved to St. Louis, where he married Elizabeth Liscome (Lily) Winn in 1873. 

The eldest son, Albert Bond Lambert, was born in 1875 (same year as Bert Walker). Lily came along eleven years later, in 1884. Her younger brother, Gerard Barnes Lambert, born in 1886, married Rachel Lowe and had two daughters (1) Rachel Lowe Lambert; and (2) Lily Cary Lambert. After their divorce in 1933, Gerard's former wife married Dr. Malvern Clopton, thus making him the stepfather of  Rachel Lowe Lambert, commonly known as "Bunny," two years after Bunny's marriage to Stacy B. Lloyd, Jr. In 1948 Bunny divorced Lloyd, and later, as Bunny Mellon, wife of Bruce Mellon, would become a great friend of Jackie Kennedy.

James Theodore Walker, Jr., Minor's Estate
Ted and Lily Lambert Walker had a son born in March 1906, only a few months before Ted's death. She remarried in October 1909 and attempted to create a trust in a will, by terms of which she divided the 1/6 interest in her mother's estate. She named George H. "Bert" Walker as her trustee along with the St. Louis Union Trust. 

After her death in 1911, a dispute arose between G. H. "Bert" Walker and the Mercantile Trust, the trustee named in Lily's mother's will, which claimed it continued to have the duty to manage the assets of her estate (consisting of 5/6 of the stock of the pharmaceutical company which manufactured and sold Listerine mouth wash). Along with that duty, of course, was the financial reward in the form of management fees, which the company claimed a right to have for eight more years. Based on the wording of the elder woman's will the trustee calculated that distribution would not occur until 1919, being 30 years after Lily Walker Clopton's mother's death in 1889. The opinion of the Missouri Supreme Court was reported at 197 S.W. 261 (1917), affirming the judgment of the trial court, which found that the mother's will was valid.

The plaintiffs (appellants) included Lily's siblings as well as the acting trustees of her estate. They attacked the validity of the mother's will on grounds it had violated the rule against perpetuities. The Missouri Supreme Court held in 1917 in favor of the will's validity, against the Lambert siblings.
In late 1904 Ted married Lilly Lambert at at 10 Hortense Place, home of one of her brothers, Marion Liscome Jarvis Lambert. Another brother, Albert Bond Lambert, lived at 2 Hortense (at Euclid). Ted's eldest brother Sidney Walker had a home at No. 5, and Bert lived at No. 12 on that same private street. All these addresses were found in the 1910 census. 

Ten years earlier the Lamberts and Walkers had lived less than 200 feet from each other, on opposite sides of Vandeventer Avenue. Jordan W. Lambert, Jr., only 22 in 1900, was head of the family of parentless siblings. Fortunately, his wife was six years his senior. When Helen Churchill Smith married him in 1897, he could have been only 19 if the census records are accurate. Four younger siblings (Marion, who had married at age 19, Lilly, Gerard, and Wooster, as well as Marion's bride, Florence Parker) moved into the house at 62 Vandeventer with Jordan Jr., his wife Helen. Their next-door neighbor was John Foster Shepley, chairman of the St. Louis Union Trust.

Ted Walker, who had lived at 53 Vandeventer, less than 200 feet away from Lilly at the time he left for Yale in 1894, may not have known the girl who was then 11 years of age, but he returned home in 1900 to find Lilly almost grown up at 16, and they married four years later. 

Much had changed during those gilded-age years while Ted was in New Haven. His brother Bert had returned from England and Scotland, finished law school, married, and had begun boxing and playing polo and golf at all the local clubs, to which his new in-laws, the Wear family, great tennis enthusiasts, also belonged. The Lamberts also frequented the same clubs and shared Ted's interest in airplanes and boxing as well.

Ted, however, did not succumb to the Lamberts' affinity for living communally. He and Lilly moved to a rural area in Clarksville, Missouri, where he had lots of space to experiment with aircraft. His death, however, resulted, not from crashing in a aeroplane, but from a very dumb mistake he made. When a gasoline-powered water pump at their home stopped working, he went to investigate, striking a match in the dark in order to see. The gasoline explosion occurred on May 18, 1906. 

Lambert Family History

We cannot pass up this opportunity to explain more about the Lambert family who were so close to the two youngest Walker boys. The Lambert children had been orphaned in 1889: their father died in January, his wife being eight months pregnant with Wooster; she too  died a month after giving birth, and her brother, John D. Winn, was appointed trustee and guardian for the children, as well as becoming president of the Lambert Pharmacal Co., which his brother-in-law, Jordan Wheat, a chemist, founded in 1881 when he had bought a license to manufacture Listerine antiseptic mouthwash, then used exclusively by dentists to kill germs and prescribed by doctors to treat colds and sore throats.

After Jordan Wheat's death, the widow's brother, J.D. Wooster Winn, ran the company until 1895, when Jordan, Jr. at eighteen sued to have him removed from that position. The five orphans were by then filthy rich due to the fact that the Lambert Pharmacal Company (located in 1891 at 314 N. Main, now First Street) was doing so well with its patent while their uncle ran the company. That location, incidentally, is approximately the site on which the Gateway Arch would eventually be built. Winn in 1891 completed a new four-story laboratory on Lucas Place at 21st Street. A competing company, called Preventol had its office at Olive and N. 23rd Streets.

It was Lilly's younger brother, Gerard Lambert, who is given credit for expanding the market to the everyday consumer wanting to fight the scourge of bad breath. After discovering the medical term "halitosis," he used it in Listerine marketing and began selling the antiseptic over the counter in drug stores in 1914.

Years earlier the Ely & Walker Company had been engaged in litigation in a case styled Hargadine et al v. Gibbons. Wayman Crow, senior partner of the firm D. D. Walker had joined, died after a 1876 judgment, and he named William Hargadine and Henry Hitchcock, as trustees to hold title of his share of the partnership assets on behalf of his named beneficiaries. Walker and his remaining partners felt compelled to renew the judgment a dozen or so years later through their attorney, William Hickman Clopton. Clopton's son, Malvern Bryan Clopton, after becoming a surgeon, in 1909 became the stepfather for Ted Walker's son, Ted Jr.

Lilly Lambert Walker married Dr. Clopton in 1909, but after less than two years of marriage, the Walkers' former daughter-in-law also died, leaving her full inherited fortune outright to her husband, whom she also named trustee for Ted Jr. The following was published shortly after her death in 1911:
Property Held in Trust, Will Be Added to Big Legacy From Father.
By the will of Mrs. Lily Lambert Clopton, filed in the Probate Court Friday, her son, Ted Walker, now 6 years old, will become one of the richest young men in St. Louis on his twenty-fifth birthday. Mrs. Clopton. who inherited one-sixth of the estate of the late Jordan W. Lambert, her father, left two-thirds of her own estate to her son, to be held in trust for him until he becomes 25 years of age.
Wooster Lambert, a brother of Mrs. Clopton, received his share of $800,000 due him from the estate of his father last year when he became 21 years old. Mrs. Clopton's share of the estate, which she received some years ago, is said to have been almost equal in amount to that received by Wooster.
In addition to two-thirds of the estate of his mother, Ted Walker inherited the bulk of the estate of his father, the late James T. Walker, son of D.D. Walker, a wealthy wholesale dry goods-man. The two estates, by the time he comes into actual possession of them, will make him very rich. 
One-Third to Husband.
Mrs. Clopton died a few days ago from blood poisoning resulting from an ulcerated tooth. After the death of her first husband, James ("Ted") Walker, on their farm in Pike County several years ago, she married Dr. Malvern B. Clopton, son of W. H. Clopton, former United States District Attorney at St. Louis. The Pike County farm, six miles from Clarksville, also is left to her son. She willed him a diamond necklace and several gold bracelets set with diamonds and sapphires, and several rings. One-third of the entire estate Mrs. Clopton willed absolutely to her husband, Dr. Clopton.
G. H. Walker and the St. Louis Union Trust Co. were appointed trustees of the estate. They were authorized to collect rents and income from the estate and to educate and maintain Ted Walker until he is 25 years old. The excess of his net income from the estate is to be invested and held in trust for him, to be turned over to him with the balance of his inheritance 19 years from now. 
Her Estate in Trust. 
Mrs. Clopton's will, written in February, 1910, recites the fact that her own estate is held in trust. Under the provision of the will of Mrs. Lily Lambert, mother of Mrs. Clopton, her estate was to be held in trust for her children for 30 years after her death, which occurred in 1889. Under the provision of the will no part of the real or personal estate can be sold until 1919, but the excess income was to go to each child upon becoming of age. A receipt filed June 6, 1910, showed that Wooster Lambert received, upon becoming 21 years old, $359,138.75 in cash, his share of the excess income, as part of his $800,000 share of the estate.
Psychical Research

At about the same time Lilly and Clopton were married, newspaper articles with no byline began appearing featuring Jordan Jr. and Helen (nicknamed Nellie) Lambert who were conducting experiments in psychic phenomena with a Columbia University professor of psychology and ethics, Dr. James H. Hyslop, who had been studying spiritualism since 1888. As president of the American Society for Psychical Research, Hyslop was exploring the tales coming from their son's nurse, William E. Hannegan, who along with his sister Lillie Hannegan, were said to have been employed by Lambert's office since 1906.[10] The experiments conducted by Helen Lambert were written up in 1908. Nine years later, in 1917 Jordan Jr.'s body was found in his room, a death by gunshot ruled to be suicide. Helen who had left home to become more involved in Prof. Hyslop's psychical society, in 1933 published a book called Cure through Suggestion with trance medium Eileen Garrett.

Coming Later

There is so much more relating to this family that has never been told. Other research to appear includes more on the Lambert family of the Listerine fortune; the Wear family's connections to Dwight Filley Davis and Jay Gould II, and of course Bert's relationship with Benjamin Yoakum, the King/Kleberg family and the Harrimans.


[1] A different story to what was told by Elijah's brother was related in Americans of Gentle Birth and Their Ancestors: A Genealogical Encyclopedia (1903), compiled by Mrs. H. D. (Hannah Daviess) Pittman with assistance from Mrs. R. K. (Rosa Kershaw) Walker. Considering the fact that they spelled Elijah's name as Keelah rather than Keeler, one suspects the writers also put a somewhat nobler twist on their story. Unfortunately, their interpretation of what had actually occurred, like their spelling, was less than accurate. Not only did French spoliation claims rise from an earlier period of history, no historical record of Elijah having been engaged in building ships exists. Mrs. R. W. Walker, wife of Howard Christy Walker, a man arrested in Mexico for allegedly stealing lumber in 1883, had for many years worked as society editor for the St. Louis Globe Democrat, and also had her own publishing company. She was not related to the Walker family studied here. Mrs. Pittman, society editor at the St. Louis Post Dispatch, also owned an apartment building known as Beaumont Flats at Olive and N. Jefferson Streets in St. Louis. She had married Williamson Haskins Pittman, a tobacco factor, in 1859.

[2]  Stevens, Walter B. (2013). pp. 333-4. St. Louis, the Fourth City, 1764-1911 (Vol. 2). London: Forgotten Books. (Original work published 1911).

[3] According to a brief filed in a lawsuit styled Saint Louis University v. Masonic Temple Association, 269 S.W.3d 447 (2008):
The University traces its history to 1818 when St. Louis Academy was established in downtown St. Louis.  It was incorporated by Act of the Missouri General Assembly in 1832....In 1876, looking to expand but wanting to stay in the City of St. Louis, Saint Louis University purchased land for a new campus near Grand Avenue and Lindell Boulevard.
[4] Elise's father, Jean Theodore Papin, was a son of  Hypolite Papin and grandson of Joseph Marie Papin and Marie Louise Chouteau, as well as a nephew of Marie Philippe Leduc. According to Saint Louis: An Informal History of the City and its People, 1764-1865, page 92, Elise's grandfather, when he died in 1811, was still heavily in debt to his Leduc son-in-law, as well as to Auguste Chouteau.  The Chouteau family, it seems, were not adverse to buying and selling Indians as slaves in those early days in Missouri, according to Shirley Christian, Before Lewis and Clark (at page 242). The Pittman and Walker genealogy set out their version of the history of the original French families who established St. Louis, including the Papins.

[5] Mrs. Burchard, married to him in 1912 had been born Allene Tew, and after his death, she was married again in 1929 to Prince Heinrich XXXIII Reuss-Köstritz.

[6] Richard Ben Cramer's 1992 book, What It Takes, may have been the first source to reveal Bert's education at Stonyhurst. Mickey Herskowitz in his book, Duty, Honor, Country, erroneously reported that the Walkers were "Scottish Catholics," a totally inaccurate statement, as shown in previous parts of this series.

[6] Jacob Weisberg, The Bush Tragedy (2008). Stonyhurst was established on lands donated by the Weld family in 1794 as a refuge for Jesuit fugitives from Liege, Belgium, and alumni included several notable Americans, including three members of Maryland's Carroll family (Charles of Carrollton, Daniel as well as the aforementioned Bishop John Carroll). Intelligence agent Vernon A. Walters is also listed among its students. Mount St. Mary's in Emmitsburg, Maryland, was built on land donated by Archbishop John Carroll, described in Part III, whose education had been completed at Stonyhurst.

[7] Thus it would have been at least partly owned by his son, Isaac Lionberger, who at the time of the fire was Assistant U.S. Attorney General in the Grover Cleveland administration. In 1899 Isaac was elected president of the St. Louis Bar Association. He was also a member of the board of directors of Washington University, so if Bert was a graduate of that law school, he almost certainly knew his father's landlord.

[8] In 1887 Wear, Boogher was "located in the spacious five-story and basement structure 100x120 feet, at the corner of Sixth and St. Charles streets," while Ely & Walker in that year was at the 500 block of N. Broadway. Those two buildings were directly across Broadway from each other, though facing different directions.The Wear home was then at 3650 Washington Avenue, less than two miles east of the Walkers' Vandeventer residence.  

40 Vandeventer, H. Clay Pierce
[9] Julius K. Hunter, Robert C. Pettus, Leonard Lujan - Westmoreland and Portland Places: The History and Architecture of America's ..., (1988), p. 22. One resident of Vandeventer during this era was H. Clay Pierce at 40 Vandeventer, originally built in 1886. While Vandeventer Place was developed beginning in 1870, it was beginning to be passé by 1888, when residents began rebuilding in Westmoreland and Portland Places to the west of town. Hortense Place was also private and gated, located off Kings Highway, one block north and east of the entrance gates into Westmoreland. 

[10] Intriguingly, Lillie's listing in the 1908 St. Louis directory showed her to be a clerk for Preventol Chemical, a company that manufactured an antiseptic used to prevent gonorrhea. Advertising mentioned that the prophylactic tube containing the "medicament" was of mandatory use  by the army and navy in Germany, and research  seems to confirm that Preventol was actually a trademark name for Bayer.