Below is what I wrote to share at the JFK Assassination Conference. Unfortunately, I got sidetracked and only skimmed the surface. I appreciate all the gracious comments I received. For those who wanted me to go more in depth, here is what I failed to say:
LEE H. OSWALD AND RUTH HYDE PAINE:
The Big Picture
by Linda Minor
I am honored today to be asked to lead off this conference, the second one inspired by the dream of Judyth Baker to exonerate a man she met in New Orleans in 1963—Lee Harvey Oswald.
This weekend you will hear many presentations about the shooting in Dallas, which occurred 30 minutes after high noon 51 years ago today. Each speaker will zero in on that event from his or her unique perspective. We come from a variety of backgrounds, levels of education and expertise. We certainly do not agree on what is the most significant detail about the murders of the three men killed on the weekend before Thanksgiving in 1963.
|Three unsolved murders|
My own research into the assassination conspiracy began, like many others, after I saw Oliver Stone’s movie, "JFK," shortly after its release. At that time I lived in Houston, Texas, and was working as an assistant county attorney, assigned to help in an investigation involving bribery allegations against the county judge, Jon Lindsay, who had served as campaign chairman in Houston a few years earlier on the first George Bush’s campaign for President. My work on this case and my interest in the assassination of 1963 began to dovetail as I learned more about Houston's history, and the wealth that created that city.
My research became centered around what was called the “Suite 8-F Crowd”—numerous men and one woman who could frequently be found hanging out on the 8th floor of the Lamar Hotel in the days before Lyndon Johnson instantly rose to the Presidency as the result of an act of extreme violence. Using the Torbitt Document, subtitled “The Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal,” as my guide, I focused first on the oil men listed in that document who lived in Houston and later spread my research to their Houston associates. Eventually my work broadened to include other sections of the state and country.
It is now some twenty years later. What have I learned that I feel I would most like to pass on to this crowd?
I will answer this question by asking you to picture a scene from a second movie which had a tremendous impact on my life, All the President’s Men. We are in a dark parking garage. Robert Redford whispers to Hal Holbrook that he has reached a dead end in his effort to obtain evidence about who planned the break-in at the Watergate office of the Democratic National Committee. He does know that Kenneth Dahlberg had given a $25,000 cashier’s check to the Committee to Reelect the President, known by its acronym, CREEP; after a few twists and turns, that same check had shown up as a deposit in the bank account of one of the burglars, Bernard L. Barker. Woodward turned to Deep Throat for a new lead.
Hal Holbrook inhales on his cigarette and leans toward Redford. A raspy whisper escapes his mouth, along with the smoke: “Follow the money!” That’s all. Just follow the money.
That one sentence describes what I’ve learned in the last twenty years. It’s about money. Why was John F. Kennedy killed? Who authorized the assassination? Follow the money.
Follow the Money
Money is what the Cold War was really all about. American capitalists wanted to maintain control of an empire they had been in the process of creating since WWI--more accurately perhaps, since the Mexican War in 1845.After the 1776 revolution, those in power had learned that nation-building needed wealth, and they had made secret special immunities to privateers, willing to engage in foreign intrigue, free of fear of prosecution. It is a sordid part of our history never really revealed.
The biggest profits, it seems, are made from activities that most of us would shun: Pushing narcotics on unwilling users and furnishing victims for perverted minds are two examples. Significant profits also can be made from war, and profiteers from revolutionary days and throughout the 19th century had been accumulating a vault of knowledge about how to create wars, disguise the proceeds therefrom, and gain power and prestige in the process. That valuable vault had to be locked away from the prying eyes of outsiders by ensuring its secrecy through "secret societies" set up within universities controlled through elite trustees. It had taken 150 years from the time colonists began arriving in America before a generation born on American soil was ready to fight a war against British control. The newly independent nation, unfortunately, was unable to separate itself from the institutional control which had been put in place during colonial days. Harvard and Yale, for example were established under trustees who had a contractual loyalty to the empire the founders of the United State had fought against. (The legal rule was decided in Dartmouth College v. Woodward in 1819.)
Not long after that Supreme Court case, secret societies began appearing on university campuses, within whose vaults is buried a very closely guarded secret:
How to obtain profits from any corrupt source and turn criminal donors into beneficent philanthropists.
With tainted gold and unholy wealth those conspirators created a system based on capital at the expense of principle. Those early-day institutions, and others formed under their aegis, still control the American empire. The history of why and how our country departed from its noble undertaking as a republic and descended or ascended, depending upon one's perception, into the realm of empire, has been written about at my blog called Where the Gold Is. There is no time to talk about that today, but for those interested in how the oligarchy we live in developed, I would refer you to that blog.
Ruth Hyde Paine's Ancestry
|Siblings of W.F. Hyde|
University of the Pacific, which had been originally named California Wesleyan College in 1851. It was chartered by the Methodist Episcopal Church two years after gold was discovered in California. The college went through a couple of name changes before the trustees agreed in 1921 to move the campus to Stockton, California, although the medical school it created merged with Stanford.
William Fletcher (better known as W.F.) Hyde managed the bookstore at the Santa Clara campus until shortly after Leland Stanford, Jr. University opened its doors in 1891. He then moved to the new town of Palo Alto and became manager of Stanford's first bookstore. During his life he became well acquainted with both the President of Stanford, David Starr Jordan, and with most of the professors who taught there.
As a matter of fact, Martha Constance Smith, who had been attracted to Stanford to work on her Ph.D., became an instructor at Stanford even before she and W.F. married and began rearing children. Martha’s grandfather, strangely enough, had co-founded the university where William Penn Hyde, her husband’s father, had received his education. So it seems, Ruth Hyde's eventual decision to become a Quaker in or before 1948 has never been fully explained.
Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, had been elected with the help of Roosevelt's "progressives," and was inaugurated in 1913. Herbert Hoover, a Republican in that progressive mold, was called to Washington, D.C. to work for Wilson's administration. He was appointed to the War Trade Council as food administrator and also served on the Supreme Economic Council in Paris during the time Colonel House, Robert Lansing and the Dulles brothers were there negotiating the peace treaty after WWI. Hoover later served as Secretary of Commerce for two Republican administrations that followed Woodrow Wilson, and then became President himself in 1928.
As U.S. President, Hoover was likely to call on Stanford graduates to fill many of the positions available in his new government.
By the time Hoover took the oath of office in 1929, Ruth’s own father, William Avery Hyde, had graduated from Stanford with a degree in chemical engineering. He met a female student who also had the last name of Hyde—Carol Elizabeth Hyde. They even shared a common ancestor back in New London, Connecticut, several generations removed. Carol’s father, Charles Ludlow Hyde, had been ordained as a Congregationalist minister at Oberlin College when he was 35, taking up a pastorate in Colorado for several years before relocating to Fremont County, California. While Carol's parents were at Oberlin, another member of the Hyde family, from yet a different branch (law student, Arthur Mastick Hyde, son of Ira B. Hyde of Missouri), was also there. He would be chosen as Herbert Hoover's Secretary of Agriculture in 1928. He was such a dark horse candidate for the job, he almost declined in shock. That is just one more strange coincidence in Hyde family genealogy.
Another curiosity from Hyde-lore is a newspaper article from 1916, which mentioned that Carol Hyde's father sought employment through a San Francisco staffing agency to work at, of all things, a poultry cooperative! Once hired, he then moved to Menlo Park near Palo Alto just in time for his daughter Carol to enroll at Stanford and study music. She graduated in 1924, a year behind William. Another news item revealed the name of the Congregationalist Church, where Carol and her father sang in the same choir with W.F. Hyde, Ruth's grandfather!
Forbes and Hyde - with a Dash of Jekyll?
Carol no doubt imparted a love of madrigal singing and folk dancing to her second daughter, Ruth, who would be born in New York City in 1932. Carol and William, who married in 1926, ostensibly moved to the Big Apple for him to work as a chemist at Bell Telephone Laboratories, whose largest shareholders, from earliest days, members of the Forbes family. In fact, after Alexander Graham Bell had patented the device called the telephone, he sought advice from bankers and businessmen about how to create a network of telephone users in order to make money off the invention, which had no marketable value unless someone with a great deal of money to invest would build the infrastructure and buy the equipment to connect telephones all over the country.
As it turns out, the man who had the vision of how such a network of telephones could be established happened to be William Hathaway Forbes, who was mentioned in Harper's Weekly in 1914. See clipping to the left. In 1921 Harper's Monthly included an essay written by biographer Albert Bigelow Paine, detailing how the telephone companies had been consolidated into one corporation. It also reveals that American Telephone & Telegraph had worked secretly with the Naval intelligence during WWI to develop wireless communication.
|Whose Money Was It?|
Stanford Grads Do Columbia
As it turns out, New York City had attracted other graduates of Stanford in 1926. In fact three students Carol had known in the Cosmopolitan Club made their way to Columbia’s graduate school that year. We found their photographs in the 1924 Stanford yearbook, where the four were members of the Cosmopolitan Club:
- Carol Hyde, who studied music;
- Talbot Bielefeldt, who majored in political science;
- Paul W. Orr, who had studied biology; and his future wife,
- Violet Balcomb, whose interest was education.
William Avery Hyde's Family
Although Ruth Paine's father, William A. Hyde, worked as a chemist for Bell Labs for at least four years, he never mentioned that fact to the FBI or the Warren Commission when questioned subsequent to the assassination about his background and his knowledge of his daughter's connection to the Oswalds.
A.J. Weberman once posted on a now-defunct website (with no citation) quoted Hyde as follows:
From 1930 to 1942 I worked for, and with, various New York metropolitan area consumer cooperatives. They were subject to attempts at communist infiltration almost continuously. Both Mrs. Hyde and I took our part in trying to block this. From 1939 to 1941 I was the District Sales Manager of Greater New York for the Farm Bureau Insurance Companies of Ohio (now Nationwide). No one could get an agent's contract from the companies in my district except through me.As mentioned earlier, Carol Hyde's father had specifically sought employment in California at a poultry cooperative in about 1920; possibly he helped to steer his son-in-law William into
selling insurance at the Farm Bureau Cooperative agency in 1930. In those years following the Communist Revolution in Russia, however, cooperative had become highly suspect of being subversive to the capitalistic lifestyle. Were William, Carol and their friends really advocates of a socialistic, if not communistic, system? More research needs to be done to determine what he was really doing. Documents are just starting to be released that may tell the story.
Bell Labs relocated from midtown Manhattan to Murray Hill, N.J. in 1941, but William and Carol had already moved to a community called Freehold, according to their friend and neighbor, Gerritt E. Fielstra, who told the FBI they had been neighbors there when the Hyde children (born 1927-1932) "were small and in grade school"--a time span which could cover from 1933 up until 1942. However, I have not been able to find Fielstra's name in any census or city directory showing that he actually lived in New Jersey. It was, nevertheless, intriguing to discover that Fielstra had joined the Cosmopolitan Club while a student at the University of Michigan in 1927. His wife, Emily, was enrolled at New York University in 1931, and listed her address as 3916 Packard in Long Island, NY. She was pregnant that year with daughter, Gretchen, who would later attend the University of Michigan's school of music and dance and marry a man named Bouwsma. Daughter Joan (Bornstein) would attend Michigan State in East Lansing. Emily predeceased her husband, and he married Terry Fielstra, according to an obituary for Joan. Their father died in 2001 in St. Petersburg, Florida, after having lived there since as early as 1985. It would be interesting to learn whether the daughters left any records showing they had known the Hyde children.
Fielstra reported the families remained close over the years, according to Fielstra, who worked for many years in New York City's library, and was available to witness Ruth's passport application in 1952, when she went to Europe for a conference. Six years earlier her sister Sylvia worked at Time magazine during her stint at Antioch College, living with the Fielstra family and giving his name as the person to contact in case of emergency. At that time he lived at 1293 E. 2nd Avenue, the same address he had when he signed Ruth's passport application six years later. [WC Doc. 504 - FBI Brune Jr. Report of 21 Sep 1956]
During Ruth's 1952 trip, she traveled from Hoboken, N.J. on the Hamburg-Amerika Line to visit several western European countries and attend the conference sponsored by New York's Church of All Nations, a Methodist-sponsored settlement house located at 9 Second Avenue (located in a row of buildings since demolished on the fringes of Greenwich Village). The Fielstras lived on the same street at 1293 S. 2nd, but the Hyde family had been living in Columbus, Ohio, for ten years by that time.
The conference followed immediately after a semester spent at a school located at 235 East 11th Street in lower Manhattan, as Ruth's testimony to the Warren Commission reveals:
Mr. JENNER - And then in the fall quarter 1951, that is October, apparently, through January 1952, and then March through May of 1952 you were a recreation instructor and a leader in the Downtown Community School in New York City, N.Y.; is that correct?Jenner took each of her jobs in order without inquiring further. He asked no questions about Ruth's summer in Europe or the curriculum of the school where she worked shortly before the summer trip, whose program fit in with the type of education offered to Antioch College students. We learn elsewhere that:
Mrs. PAINE - That is after reentering Antioch.
Mr. JENNER - Yes.
Mrs. PAINE - Right. The job you describe was part of my work placement from Antioch College.
The Downtown Community School was a progressive, cooperative, racially integrated school, founded in 1944 by a group of parents and educators. As director, [Norman] Studer attempted to create a curriculum that was aimed at promoting a healthy concept of self and a deeper understanding of society.The 1940 census reveals that William Hyde did show his occupation by then as an insurance agent instead of a chemist, and reported that he had lived in this same town five years earlier. Ruth told the Warren Commission that when she was eight years old (1940), the family moved back to New York for two years, and moved to Columbus, Ohio, in 1942.
Commies Under the Bed?
It is the 1930 census, however, which is the most revealing. It indicated that the Hydes, who knew Talbot Bielefeldt from Stanford days, showed him as a resident with them at their apartment near Columbia, while he allegedly worked as a clerk at a credit reporting agency. He then more or less disappears from public sight until 1936, when he was awarded the position of Postmaster in his hometown, the same town, coincidentally, where Richard Nixon’s family had lived in 1920.
When I looked up Talbot’s name in Mary Ferrell’s database, what immediately popped up was the fact that Talbot Bielefeldt was a CIA agent no later than 1953, cleared to attend that year’s war college along with several other persons whose names were familiar:
- E. Howard Hunt,
- Thomas W. Braden
- Cord Meyer, Jr. and
- Tracy Barnes.
A 1955 memorandum written by Talbot to the CIA’s security division for employee clearances reported about his being invited by Ruth’s brother-in-law, John Hoke, to meet with William Avery Hyde, the father of Ruth Hyde Paine. The name of another person also invited was redacted from the memo. The subject line reads “Paul and Violet Orr,” and the body mentions that “we three” knew each other at Stanford.
In 1955 Paul and Violet Orr were fired from jobs they held in California because of Senator Joe McCarthy’s campaign to weed Communists out of the government. Clearly, from other information in the files, Talbot was also investigated, but those files have not been located to date.
The job Paul Orr lost in 1955 was at Caltech in Pasadena, California, where NASA's jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) was located; he had previously been in charge of the biology stockroom. Many newspapers reported that he refused to give evidence about his membership in communist groups when he was called to testify by Congressman Richard Nixon's House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).
In 1928 Paul and Violet had traveled to Moscow and Leningrad to teach English in Russia for two years. Immigration records show they returned in 1930, giving the same address where Talbot and the Hydes lived that year. Were they Communists? Were they spies? The answer is that at this point we don’t really know. Had Paul Orr obtained a security clearance before being placed in charge of JPL's biology stockroom? We know that after returning from Russia, the Orrs lived in Richmond, California, across the bay from San Francisco for several years during the mid-1930's.
Ruth and Her Siblings
Let’s move forward to the next generation. I discovered numerous documents about the Paine family at NARA, which contains an excellent search engine. One person interviewed by the FBI stated Ruth had attended Middlebury College in Vermont for two months in 1959, while she was pregnant, just before she and Michael moved to Texas. The Russian language course she took was designed for persons who could speak Russian fluently; Ruth had never studied Russian before but was able to attend because another student had cancelled at the last moment.
The Hyde folder at NARA also indicates that a neighbor reported that William A. Hyde had his wife, Carol, committed to a mental hospital in 1960. After getting out, she divorced him the same year and enrolled at Oberlin College, where her parents had graduated many years earlier. Although her father had been in the Congregationalist ministry before working for the poultry cooperative, Carol was ordained as a Unitarian minister. On page 8 of the file it is reported that an informant had reported to the FBI in 1954 that Carol Hyde had been a speaker at a group in Columbus, Ohio called the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, considered by officials as a Communist front group.
Michael Paine was also a member of the Unitarian Church, not uncommon for members of the Forbes family in Massachusetts. Ruth Hyde became interested in the Friends Society possibly as early as 1948 (according to her friend, Mary Forman). Both of Ruth's parents, however, had attended a Unitarian church by that time. According to the Warren Report, Ruth graduated in 1955 from Antioch, and had become a Quaker during high school in 1951 the same time as her brother, Carl Dudley Hyde. However, one witness, Mrs. Richard Eastman, stated that she met Ruth in 1947 or '48 when Ruth attended the Friends' Bible School, while living at home and also going to Antioch College. This college, it has been stated, had some strange ties to Albert Schweitzer College, to which Lee Oswald submitted an application shortly before he was scheduled to leave the Marine Corps.
It is even stranger to learn from Stephen Frank Jacobs, that he knew Ruth well enough to attend her wedding and correspond with her twice a year when he actually graduated from Antioch in 1951 and obtained a Ph.D in physics from Johns Hopkins in 1957. Ruth's friend from Antioch, Carol Freedman (later Townsend), stated they roomed together in 1954 and 1955. (See complete NARA file). How could she possibly have known Jacobs, who was at Antioch from 1947-51, if she was still there in 1955? Did she possibly start classes at Antioch when she was only 15? Could Jacobs have her confused with Sylvia? We may never know.
An obit notice in NY Times indicates Carol Freedman Townsend's mother (Mrs. Zac Freedman), was also known as was Irene Thirer, who died on Feb. 19, 1964. She was a "Motion Picture editor and critic of N.Y. Post, wife of [Aaron] Zac, mother of Mrs. Lee Townsend and Charles Freedman, grandmother of Laird Charles Townsend, sister of Mrs. Marjory Geiss and Mrs. Richard P. McKeon of Chicago." Carol Townsend lived in Greenwich, CT (Bush family bailiwick) until 1976, when she moved to San Francisco. Her second husband was Milton Moskowitz. She died in 1995.
Sylvia Hyde, married a man named John Hoke and obtained a security clearance to work in Air Force intelligence. J. Edgar Hoover sent the FBI reports on Sylvia Hyde Hoke, which were made in September and October of 1956 and in February 1957, to J. Lee Rankin of Warren Commission in 1964. It appears that Sylvia decided not to pursue employment in June 1957 prior to completion of the the security clearance, Hoover indicated in his letter to Rankin, referring him to check further with the Office of Special Investigations, Department of the Air Force. He also forwarded 1953 FBI reports which had been generated when Ruth's brother, Carl Dudley Hyde, applied for the status of conscientious objector during the Korean War. The actual files appear near the end of the file identified as
By 1955 Wilson was in contact with a Communist named Isadore Gibby Needleman, who worked for Amtorg Trading Agency, the USSR's official organ of trade, according to a fifth confidential informant. Other confidential informants, apparently assigned to follow Wilson in New York, reported on her employment by Helen Hoke Associates, a business owned by Sylvia Hoke's mother-in-law in 1956. This business was at Lexington Avenue and 49th Street in the Hotel Shelton. She later married Franklin Watts, and published her books under his name with the address of 699 Madison Avenue in New York. Incorporation papers included the name of Dorothy H. Wilson.
The report on Sylvia went back to her birth and dug deeply into her education at Antioch College, which had a cooperative program to send its students to an internship program in New York City. Sylvia, a psychology major, had interned with the YMCA in New York one semester, according to James Curtis Day, Antioch's placement counselor, working from March to July as a "test scorer." During one six-week portion of this internship, Sylvia lived at 101 West 55th Street, in the home of the woman who would later become her mother-in-law: Helen Hoke (who later married Franklin Watts).
Shortly after Sylvia's graduation from Antioch College, her mother, Carol Hyde, began telling neighbors (who reported the information to the Columbus, Ohio office of the FBI) that she was a Communist. By this time William Hyde was working at an insurance company affiliated with the Consumers Coop--the Farm Bureau--at its Columbus office headquarters. Neighbors reported that the Hydes regularly associated with "foreigners," and persons of different races. One neighbor with whom they were friendly was Dr. Margaret Shuttleworth, who said they told her they were Quakers and pacifists until WWII but then changed their belief, although their children may have continued with the same religion.
Another Confidential Informant from Cincinnati reported that Carol Hyde spoke to a meeting of the Women's International League of Peace and Freedom in 1954 and stated that all people are made by one creator. This local chapter had been formed in 1952 by Ruth Hamlin, said to be a member of the Communist Party. By 1955 this group was working for disarmament. By this time the Air Force was apparently attempting to gather witnesses to testify against Sylvia at her security clearance hearing. The FBI consulted the credit reporting agencies, who furnished information from credit applications pertaining to addresses and work history. The credit information in 1955 stated Sylvia's husband, John Hoke, was a public relations official.
By 1957 the FBI reported that Dorothy Wilson had in January 1957 told her associate Isadore Gibby Needleman that John Hoke was employed by AAA in Washington, D.C. at the same time Sylvia worked with "Naval Intelligence." She also said Helen Hoke was getting out of the publishing business except for maintaining limited luncheon contacts. Wilson revealed that she was relatively certain the to secret Air Force clearance would not be granted to Sylvia Hoke.
The NARA file that contains reports on Ruth's background reveal she applied for a passport in May of 1952 in order to spend two months in Europe, to attend a conference presented by the Church of All Nations (9 Second Avenue in New York), and to visit Holland, Germany, France and England. Her passport application was witnessed by a family friend, Gerritt E. Fielstra, who shared similar views with the Hydes.
The FBI report quoted findings of other confidential informants related to Gerritt Fielstra, a New York librarian who attempted to form a union and to organize discussion groups in the 1940's. It is quite fascinating, apart from anything in the FBI file, to discover that Fielstra graduated from the University of Michigan in 1927 and was a member of the Cosmopolitan Club, the same club Carol and her friends had been members of only two or three years earlier at Stanford. By 1930 he and his wife and daughter lived in Queens, New York.
His name was mentioned in "The Negro-Caucasian Club: A History," Michigan quarterly review (Volume VIII, Issue: 2, Spring 1969, pp. 97-106):
...Emily Hulbert and Gerritt Fielstra together. They married in 1928. They had listened to the lecture of W. E. B. Du Bois that year, and, shocked and stirred, they planned their honeymoon trip accordingly. They drove to Nashville, and visited Fisk University and Meharry Medical School, staying several days in the dormitories and getting to know the Negro students in their daily lives. Then they drove on to Atlanta and stayed several days with the students of Morehouse and Spelman Colleges. The truth of segregation at first hand was devastating to all old prejudices.The FBI report on the Paines also delved into the background of Michael's family, revealing that after her divorce from Lyman Paine, in about 1935 Ruth moved to Santa Barbara, California for about a year and was said to be producing ballets, "designing sets and costumes herself." She was in Santa Barbara a year or two after William Lee Ustick received a fellowship in 1933 from the Henry E. Huntington Library in San Marino to study Renaissance literature. The two cities were about 115 miles apart.
In 1940, Ruth Paine and her sons appeared twice in the census at two different addresses. One showed her to be living at at 39 Mt. Auburn Street, though the word "cancel" appears to have been written over the entry in pencil. A second enumeration appears for her and her sons at 12 Dunstable Road in Cambridge, Massachusetts with W. Lee Ustick, an English professor, originally from St. Louis. Dr. Ustick had taught previously at Washington University and at Goucher College near the campus of Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. Although he appears to have been married to Eugenie Miltenberger Ustick, his wife was not shown in the Cambridge home with him while Ruth and her boys were there. This was a year before she married Giles Waldo Thomas. However, Eugenie was listed in the city directory with him in 1941 and subsequent years. Mrs. Ustick was an alumna of Bryn Mawr, a Quaker college, where her daughter Ellen was also later enrolled. It is possible the mother and daughter went abroad during 1940.
As a boy Ustick had lived at 4207 Westminister Place, only a block from the home of Max Kotany, a Hungarian stockbroker who married Mrs. G. H. Walker's sister, Mildred Wear. G.H. Walker was, of course, Prescott Bush's father-in-law. In 1921, Prescott and his wife, the former Dorothy Walker of St. Louis, had lived in Milton, Massachusetts, only two blocks from where Ruth Forbes had lived at the time. Years later this Ruth Paine would join Cord Meyer's World Federalist Movement, after becoming appalled by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan. She asked the United Nations' U-Thant how she could help, and he sent her to Indar Jit Rikhye, who became the first president of her organization, the International Peace Academy.
Ruth Hyde's father was also working with US AID, but we don’t know in what capacity. He appears to have spent some time in South America, Peru in particular. Evidence so far is quite sketchy, but we know that in 1963, after Ruth had dropped Marina Oswald off in New Orleans, she drove her station wagon, children in tow, leaving Michael behind at the Bell Helicopter plant, all the way from New Orleans to Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Washington, D.C. before returning back in time to fetch the pregnant woman and young June and take them back to Irving, Texas. By this time her parents had divorced, and her mother, had become a Unitarian minister. She visited with each family member separately, as well as Michael’s parents, who had invited her to the family reunion that summer on Naushon Island, just off Nantucket, Massachusetts. We can only wonder whether one of the Kennedys sailed by on their yacht that summer.
The Naushon Island retreat was a private island that had been purchased many decades earlier by John Murray Forbes, presumably with some of the massive profits he had earned in China engaged in the opium trade. It was his son, William Hathaway Forbes, who had consolidated AT&T, which set up Bell Labs to do research and development. Michael’s mother was a granddaughter of W.H. Forbes. Her father was Ralph Emerson Forbes, who married Elise Cabot. Both sides of the family were heavily involved in the China trade and with privateering as far back as the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Most of the research on this has been posted at one or another of my blogs.
Michael Paine had studied engineering and had worked for several years constructing models from the helicopter plans drafted by his stepfather, Arthur Young, who sold the designs to Bell Aircraft Corporation in New York in 1941. (See interview with Raymond Entenmann.) When Lawrence Bell built the helicopter plant in Hurst, Texas in 1951, he created a separate subsidiary called Bell Helicopter, which hired Michael after Bell died in 1956. Arthur Young retired, Michael married Ruth in 1957, and Michael and Ruth moved to Texas. They bought a home in Irving, a few miles from the Bell Helicopter plant in Hurst, in about 1958. At some point during these events, a pregnant Ruth Paine found time to worm her way into Middlebury College to study Russian.
It was not long after their move to Texas that a strange new type of corporation bought the company which employed Michael. The new owner, a conglomerate called Textron, got its name from the fact that it was created originally to buy up textile mills, mostly located in New England. In fact, the man who envisioned the octopus-like entity had begun began his buying spree shortly after WWI concluded. During the war most of such plants had been converted to war production. Most factories of this type could also make weapons, and it is highly likely that they had been purchased by the government, and that the apparent owner was engaged in selling off the assets of these old mills as surplus. We must remind ourselves that Prescott Bush's father, Samuel Bush, of Columbus, Ohio, was a high-ranking member of the War Industries Board during WWI. Shortly after the war, Prescott married Dorothy Walker, whose father, G. H. Walker, stood to inherit the dry goods business and textile mills owned by his own father and siblings--Ely & Walker Co. Further research would need to be done in this connection.
What we know at this point is that the parent corporation, Bell Aircraft, sold only its “defense and government products operations” to Textron, which had set up assorted charitable trusts based in Providence, R.I. Through these trusts Textron held title to the corporate stock of companies such as Bell Helicopter. The SEC referred to Textron as “the world’s first conglomerate.” Other sources called it a pyramid arrangement. My suspicion is that something totally different was going on. Money was being moved into these tax-free trusts which were stockpiling war materiel at the precise time coups were being staged by American and British intelligence operatives in Guatemala and in Iran. In 1954, the United States was looking toward taking over from France the war that had been ongoing for decades in the colonial empire in Indo-China. Money was needed in massive amounts to fight communism. I suspect that Textron was a proprietary of the first order.
Textron paid the purchase price for Bell Helicopter’s assets and stock on July 1960 with $32 million cash.
In today’s dollars that would equate to more than a quarter billion in cash!
Where did the money come from? How much of the company’s stock was owned by Michael Paine’s mother and stepfather? We may never know, but it would be fascinating to have access to those records.
The scheme was devised by G. William Miller, who had been hired by Textron in 1956 as an assistant secretary. After a year he was promoted to vice president of the company and by 1960 was elected company president at the age of 35. Miller came from a lower middle-class background. Born in Oklahoma in 1925 to parents who had migrated from Arkansas, but soon moved on to the oil boom town of Borger, Texas, where Miller went to public schools during the years of depression. After a year at junior college in Amarillo he was awarded a position at the Coast Guard Academy in Connecticut. By the time he graduated with a degree in marine engineering in 1945, the war was practically over, but he began serving his commission in the Pacific, mostly in Okinawa and Shanghai. While there he met and married a Russian émigré Ariadna Rogojarsky (or Rogajarski), according to his 2006 obituary in the New York Times.
The Coast Guard then financed further education at Boalt School of Law in Berkeley. After graduating among the top of his class, he was hired by the Wall Street law firm of Cravath, Swaine & Moore in 1952. One of his first clients was Textron, for which he handled a proxy fight. Textron’s founder was so impressed, he hired the lawyer to work full-time for the corporation in 1956. He was amazingly successful at what he did, so much so that before long he became governor of the Federal Reserve, and after that he was appointed by Jimmy Carter to be Secretary of the Treasury.
Beginning in 1953, Textron, this corporation with $6 million in losses, began a buying spree, acquiring over the next few years 40 manufacturing companies which made metal parts or other products which could easily be converted to war production. Textron set up a Massachusetts trust in Providence, R. I., which then issued stock through two investment banks in order to raise funds from investors in the conglomerate which was betting that there was a new war just waiting in the wings.
In a moment of madness as I wrote this presentation, I found myself wondering what banker might have handled this issue of Textron stock. What I discovered shocked even me:
The shares of stock in Sixty Trust were issued in 1962 by two investment banks: G.H. Walker & Co. and Blair & Co.I’ll repeat that first name. G. H. Walker. Sound familiar? George Herbert Walker, who created that investment bank was the father-in-law in 1960 of Prescott Bush, the father of George Herbert Walker Bush (41) and grandfather of George Walker Bush (43).
A few years later there were two separate Senate investigations into G. William Miller’s conduct while he served as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board. One involved a payment of $2.9 million made in 1973 by Bell Helicopter to a company called Air Taxi, Inc. Air Taxi was said to be Textron’s sales agent in Iran. It had been discovered by the Senate investigators that Air Taxi was owned by Mohammed Khatami, the Shah’s personal pilot, who also was married to Fatimeh Pahlavi, the Shah’s sister. America’s relationship with the Shah, as I mentioned, dates back to 1953 when Eisenhower’s man in the CIA Allen Dulles was toppling communist governments in Guatemala and Iran. Was Bell Helicopter a CIA proprietary? Was Textron a creation of the CIA to finance the war in Vietnam?
Khatami had unfortunately died in an accident in 1975 before the first Senate investigation when former chairman of Textron was being approved to serve as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board and later as President Carter’s nominee for Secretary of the Treasury. Although the almost $3 million payment in 1978 was characterized by one senator as a bribe, Miller survived the inquiry.
At some point before February 1977, the son of Lyndon Johnson's secret back channel briefer, Howard Burris, Jr., married Princess Shahrzad, daughter of the Shah’s eldest sister, Shams. They may have met while she attended Mt. Vernon College, and they were married in a quiet ceremony in the Iranian Embassy in Rome in 1976. Burris’ mother was the daughter of Governor Beauford Jester of Texas, who married Colonel Burris Sr. in 1946, Lyndon Johnson's back channel adviser on intelligence--one of the men who would serve on LBJ's inaugural committee. The other was Col. O. Delk Simpson. Together the two men were given the code names SIO and Intellfirst by Robert Morrow in his book, The Senator Must Die.
In 1960 Textron earned $14 million, or $2.93 a share, on $383 million in sales. The corporation had 29,000 employees and 90 plants and ranked 124th in size on Fortune magazine's roster of the 500 largest industrial companies. And in 1963, it sold off all its remaining textile operations. In 1968 Miller became Chief Executive Officer of Textron and was elected Chairman and Chief Executive Officer in 1974, a post he held until he moved to the Federal Reserve Board. In December 1968 the announcement was made that Textron had been awarded a $28 million government contract for the HU-1B utility helicopter, more commonly known as the Huey.
As I said earlier, the best way to understand how our world works:
Follow the money!