Tuesday, October 22, 2013

Judyth Vary Baker's New Orleans Tour

The way they were in 1963
The author of this blog was fortunate to be present in New Orleans during the week which would have been the 74th birthday of Lee H. Oswald, had he not been murdered in Dallas on November 24, 1963. Thanks to my friend, Jeffrey Holmes, who traveled to Toronto in 2011 for the first-ever book tour of the author of Me and Lee: How I Came to Know, Love and Lose Lee Harvey Oswald, Judyth was able to show spectators the streets where she walked with Lee while they worked together at Reilly Coffee Company, the back door he sneaked out of, and the location a block away of 544 Camp Street a la 531 Lafayette--where Guy Banister housed his anti-Castro activities.

Please enjoy the tour. Express your thanks to  Doug MacCash, NOLA.com | The Times-Picayune
and encourage him to read Judyth's book and to realize that Lee was not one of the assassins of JFK. Telling the truth is an uphill battle. Sometimes we feel a little like Sisyphus in the attempt. But the battle is worth the effort.

Sunday, October 20, 2013

LBJ's Strange Links to C.R. Smith of American Airlines

C.R. Smith
All this inquiry has taken us far afield of our original interest in the Fort Worth preacher, J. Frank Norris, and his sponsorship by the attorney who set up the first Southern Air Transport (SAT) in Texas. It was this location from which John Birch was launched to the very site in China where he would come to the aid of Doolittle's Raiders. Was this a mere coincidence or was it part of someone's insidious plan?

Those of us who struggle to learn "the secret history" are well aware of the Florida company by that name and what the SAT was was known to transport in Asia. Helliwell links the OSS and the military's Air Transport Command through the Central Intelligence proprietary company re-created years after the Dallas company's incorporation. This blog has spent many words exploring Helliwell's background, as you can find by using the search engine to the right.

We can learn even more about Southern Air Transport's links to Claire Chennault from an excerpt, "Heroin in Southeast Asia," from Henrik Kruger's book, The Great Heroin Coup – Drugs, Intelligence, and International Fascism:
Pawley 1918 passport
[William D.] Pawley eventually built five large airplane factories around the world. It is also likely that he was involved in the CIA's Double Chek Corp. in Miami, as he had similarly been in the Flying Tigers. The CIA's air proprietaries are said to stick together. When in 1958, CIA pilot Allen Pope was shot down and taken prisoner in Indonesia, he was flying for CAT. When he was released in 1962 he began flying for Southern Air Transport, another agency proprietary, which operated as late as 1973 out of offices in Miami and Taiwan. 
Pawley, it seems, had ties to Cuba going back as early as 1918, according to his passport application (above right). Secret intelligence operatives fighting communism along with Claire Chennault and the Flying Tigers would obtain their funds for that continuing war from laundered profits that came from the sale of heroin refined from poppies produced in Southeast Asia. The laundering mechanism was Southern Air Transport, a corporation set up in 1947 by CIA paymaster, Paul Helliwell, also a Florida attorney. Is there a connection between this corporation in Florida and the earlier one in Texas? Norris' Searchlight would come in handy now, to help us look for those links.
Norris' newspaper.

Back in Fort Worth

Norris' anti-Catholic rhetoric had inspired the wrath of Henry C. Meacham, who in addition to owning a retail store was also Fort Worth's mayor from 1925-27. Meacham, a Catholic, allegedly asked his friend Dexter Elliott Chipps, referred to as an angry drunk, to reason with the preacher. So says Don Graham in a Texas Monthly piece:
Mayor Meacham
By the mid-twenties Norris oversaw a virtual communications empire. Besides producing a steady stream of articles for his tabloid, The Searchlight , he broadcast sermons and political rants on his radio station, KFQB, which billed itself “Keep Folks Quoting the Bible.” Everything came to a head in the summer of 1926, after Mayor H. C. Meacham sought to heavily tax Norris’s empire. Norris responded by accusing the mayor of graft and dropping hints about a sexual relationship between Meacham and a young woman. The mayor retaliated by firing several employees of his department store for refusing to give up their membership in the First Baptist Church. This kind of heavy-handed tactic only gave Norris another reason to bash the mayor, which he did on an almost daily basis. Many people in Fort Worth wanted Norris dead, and one of them, a friend of the mayor’s named D. Elliott Chipps, decided to deal with Norris personally. Known to be belligerent when drinking, Chipps confronted Norris in his church office on a hot July afternoon in 1926. The visit ended when Norris fired three bullets into Chipps’s body, an act that captured the nation’s attention. 
Norris was acquitted of murder charges, based on public threats made against him by the victim, and he continued to preach against all forms of vice — and against Communism — until his death in 1952.

World Fundamental Baptist Missionary Fellowship

Norris antagonized the "Southern Baptists" and their SBGCT organization as well as the seminary he organized in Fort Worth, and as a consequence set up a a new one to replace the first, which was too liberal for his taste. His friend Pemberton was a trustee.

Dr. Louis Entzminger relates that Norris organized his own seminary in downtown Fort Worth in 1939 called the Fundamentalist Baptist Bible Institute (page 55), but changed the name in 1938 for accreditation purposes. Located within the First Baptist Church of Fort Worth, the institute, or seminary, was an impressive structure. His most well- known student was Captain John M. Birch.

The following item appeared on the front page of the Big Spring, Texas, Daily Herald on March 3, 1938:
Dr. Entzminger, who maintains headquarters in Chicago and Fort Worth, is engaged principally in organization work and seeking contributions which go directly to missionary fields in China, Europe and Africa and the Spanish field around San Antonio. He said that the movement had doubled in the past six months, that he had travelled 11,000 miles since the first of the year, spoke to 60,000, converted 1,000 and made contacts with more than 1,000. He is accompanied by Dr. J. Frank Norris, Fort Worth, who is unofficially connected with the movement.
In 1940 Entzminger lived in an apartment building which is at the same address as today's YMCA building.

Cutting Red Tape in FDR's State Department

Entzminger tells in his book how his first trip to the Far East came about:
[FDR's] Former Secretary of State Cordell Hull, I know, rendered him [Norris] several special favors. For instance, when I went to the Orient, I did not know I was going until Thursday night before I left on Sunday night. I had no passport, I had made no preparation. Dr. Norris said, "You're going to China and Japan." I appreciated his enthusiasm but deplored his judgment, as I knew it was impossible. But, to my surprise, Friday morning he called up the Secretary of State and though I had not made any application, he told the Secretary of State he had to have the passport by the following Sunday morning, two days afterwards. The Secretary of State said, "You get the application in, and I will get the passport back to you." That was only two days before. I filed the necessary application and early Sunday morning a Special-Delivery registered letter came, and it was my Passport to China, Japan, Manchuria and Korea. That was really cutting the Washington red tape in a hurry.

C.R. Smith, FDR's Air Transport Command
Then there remained the question of transportation. Dr. Norris was a great personal friend of Mr. C.R. Smith, President of American Airlines, and he called him and secured my round-trip ticket from Detroit to Seattle and upon my return from the Orient the proper plane reservation from San Francisco to Los Angeles and then to Fort Worth and on back to Detroit. Then he had another friend who was agent for the biggest shipping company and secured steamer passage without delay on that trip. Everything went according to clockwork and I got back to Detroit within two minutes of my scheduled time, after going half way around the world and back.
Thus, not only are we led to understand that the relationship between the preacher and the Buck family, the attorneys for both C. R. Smith and A. P. Barrett and their airline and radio companies--a relationship which began in 1909--continued during Cordull Hull's tenure as Secretary of State for FDR from  1933 through 1944--but that the State Department was responsible for obtaining authority for Norris and his staff to travel internationally without using the normal channels.

This could only mean that whatever Norris was doing abroad, he was linked to the highest echelons of the Department of State's permanent bureaucracy, most likely handled through the office of the Chief of Protocol, James Clement Dunn. We will return to this connection in future posts, after briefly noting a few interesting data which tie this office to Fort Worth.

Dunn had married Mary Augusta Armour, daughter of Kirkland Brooks Armour, president of Armour Packing Co., who died in 1901. Mary's portion of the estate left to her in trust was almost a million dollars in 1901, when she was only seven years old. When the company went public in 1923, Mary Dunn would not only have become much wealthier, but the Armour family also became more politically connected, as shown below. J. Ogden Armour was one of her father's relations, who was in 1917 a director of American International Corporation and associated with many directors of the new Federal Reserve Bank of New York:
Among the directors of AIC were Frank A. Vanderlip, President of the National City Bank of New York, Theodore N. Vail,  President of American Telephone and Telegraph, shipping line magnates Robert Dollar (Dollar Lines) and J. P. Grace (director of National City Bank), Percy A. Rockefeller (son of William Rockefeller and Isabel Stillman--heir to National City Bank), Pierre S. du Pont (heir to explosives company that created chemical industry and owner of General Motors; cousin of the owner of 120 Broadway), J. Ogden Armour (meat-packing heir), Robert S. Lovett (attorney and president for both the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific while owned by E.H. Harriman), William E. Corey (director of Sinclair Oil at 120 Broadway), Otto H. Kahn (of Kuhn, Loeb and Co.), C. A. Coffin (chairman of General Electric), John D. Ryan (National City Bank), W. S. Saunders (director of New York Fed at 120 Broadway), G. L. Tripp (Chase National Bank), A. H. Wiggin (Director of Federal Reserve Bank of New York in the early 1930s), James Stillman (National City Bank), R. F. Herrick, Beekman Winthrop (Secretary of the Navy and Governor of Puerto Rico), Edward S. Webster and Charles Augustus Stone (both of Boston engineering firm of Stone and Webster).
Lyndon Johnson appointed Rev. Norris' close friend, Cyrus Rowlett Smith, Secretary of Commerce in 1968. Five years earlier, on March 23, 1963, Smith had introduced President Kennedy at a speech he gave at the Conrad Hilton Hotel Civic Luncheon in Chicago. In 1968 Smith campaigned with John Connally for Richard Nixon, according to an article by Leo Janos in the July 1973 Atlantic. The article appeared as part of the FBI's 201 file set up on Lee Harvey Oswald.

It should also be mentioned that Smith and his manager Ralph Radcliffe were also recommended less than one month after the JFK assassination by the FBI Dallas SAC for a personal letter from J. Edgar Hoover to thank them for their "unusual assistance" in the FBI's investigation of Kennedy's assassination. We all know the results of that so-called investigation.

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Sugar Daddy of John Birch Society

A popular "conspiracy" author, G. Edward Griffin, member of the John Birch Society, narrated a documentary about John Birch in the 1960s, which readers may find interesting. It depicts the heroic life of Birch as a missionary who was on the scene to rescue the Doolittle Raiders, who had a secret mission to bomb the Japanese mainland in April 1942. Corporal Leland D. Faktor was killed during the raid and was buried in a service presided over by Rev. Birch.

Who exactly was this man, Robert Welch, who in 1958 founded a group in honor of John Birch? Besides being the man who gave us Sugar Daddies, Sugar Babies, Milk Duds and Junior Mints, he also gave us the father of the Koch Brothers, chief funders of the Tea Party movement today. Jane Mayer wrote in her 2010 article in The New Yorker, "Covert Operations: The Billionaire Koch Brothers' War Against Obama":
A Republican campaign consultant who has done research on behalf of Charles and David Koch said of the Tea Party, “The Koch brothers gave the money that founded it. It’s like they put the seeds in the ground. Then the rainstorm comes, and the frogs come out of the mud—and they’re our candidates!”

Did the Tea Party Spring from John Birch's Ashes?

Robert Henry Winborne Welch, Jr., was born near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in 1899, growing up on the farm Frances Hallowell Welch, his grandmother, owned. Her son, Robert, Sr., wife Lina Verona (James) Welch, and their children farmed the land with help from six black workers who lived there. Even after the candy-making brothers left home, the youngest son William Dorsey Welch would remain on this northeastern North Carolina farm surrounded by his grandmother's Hallowell relatives.

Something of a prodigy, young Bobby entered college at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, at the age of 12 and graduated from that institution in 1916. The cities of Chapel Hill and Durham were the agricultural, industrial and financial domain controlled by Julian Shakespeare Carr and his wife Nannie--who in 1924 made application to the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, the same year he died. After Carr's tobacco company had become successful, he sold it in 1898 to James Buchanan Duke of nearby Durham, who had begun mass producing cigarettes in the 1880s. Duke died only months after Carr's death, but not before James B. Duke, his father and brother had helped to change this section of North Carolina forever.
  • J.B.'s older brother, Benjamin Newton, had launched the family into the textile business as early as 1892. As their textile interests developed, the need for economical water power led the 
  • Dukes into the hydroelectric generating business. In 1905, they founded the Southern Power Company, now known as Duke Power, one of the companies making up Duke Energy, Inc. Within two decades, this company was supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and various other factories, electric lines, and cities and towns primarily in the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina.
  • Lifelong Methodists, the two brothers practiced the kind of financial stewardship encouraged by their church and instilled in them by their father. Ardent Republicans and sympathetic to the downtrodden, the Dukes, individually and collectively, gave to a number of causes. 
  • In December, 1924, James B., who was by far the wealthiest member of the family, established The Duke Endowment as a permanent trust fund with designated beneficiaries. In so doing, he was following the family's long-standing patterns of philanthropy. 
  • In 1892, Washington Duke had helped a Methodist-related institution, Trinity College, relocate to Durham, and since 1887 Ben had been a member of the school's Board of Trustees. A new university built around Trinity was to be the prime beneficiary of the Duke Endowment, and at the insistence of Trinity President William Preston Few, the college was re-chartered as Duke University in honor of Washington Duke and his family.

Back in 1880 Trinity College enrolled a "special" student, its first international student-- a young Chinese boy who would later be known as Charlie Soong, who spent the summer of 1881 in Durham with his sponsor, Julian S. Carr. It was a decade later that Trinity was relocated to Durham, the name being change to Duke. The Duke University Board of Trustees was established the year Carr died and the year James B. Duke created his endowment. James B. Duke and his wife had only one child, Doris Duke, born in 1912. When he died in 1925, he left another $67 million to the endowment.

Too young to join the military, he enrolled at Annapolis Naval Academy, according to the Documentary History of John Birch Society:
Bobby Welch
Robert H.W. Welch enrolled in the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis MD during World War I, and during World War II he served on the Advisory Commission of the Office of Price Administration [one of 50 advisers] for the candy industry. In 1922, Welch founded the Oxford Candy Company and was its Sales Manager in 1935. Beginning in 1940, he was Vice President and Director of Sales and Advertising of his brother's candy company, The James O. Welch Company of Cambridge MA. In 1947, Welch was the recipient of the Kettle Award by the candy industry. From 1940-1944, Welch was a Board member of the Massachusetts Chess Federation.
From 1951 to 1954, he was a member of the Belmont MA School Committee and served as Director of several small businesses and one bank. He served as Chairman of the Board of the Washington Commission of the National Association of Candy Manufacturers and also was a member of the Board of Directors of the United Prison Association. From 1951-1957 he was a Director of the National Association of Manufacturers, being its Vice President from 1955-1957. In 1941, he authored the book, The Road To Salesmanship. In 1952 his book, May God Forgive Us was published and in 1954, The Life of John Birch.
In conducting research on certain persons in Fort Worth, Texas, this blog writer came across the fact that John Birch, for whom Welch named his group, had attended a Baptist seminary in that city in 1940 and arrived in China only months before the U.S. entered the war against Japan. Rick Perlstein wrote in Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus, that Welch's book, The Life of John Birch:
told the tale of a young American Baptist missionary-cum-spy who learned at the close of World War II of the Communists' secret plan to take over China. He was assassinated, and his murder was supposedly covered up by State Department quislings who knew if the story got out their own complicity in Mao's victory would be revealed.
Armed with that information, I began to wonder why Robert Welch was drawn to use John Birch as the name of a supposedly libertarian society, given the fact that foreign missionaries were engaged in such an internationalist role abroad, and that Norris' seminary was so closely tied to, and financed by, an international network of airline companies. Notwithstanding that curious anomaly, it should also be pointed out that descendants of some of Welch's original members are today involved with equally incongruous activities.

Fred C. Koch
For example, during the early days of the JBS, it has been revealed in a recent memoir by Claire Conner, Wrapped in the Flag: A Personal History of America's Radical Right, how much influence Welch exerted on her father, Stillwell J.Conner. The author talks about  Fred C. Koch, who was on the original board of the JBS with Welch, and about his two sons, Charles and David Koch, the subject of another recent book, Koch Brothers Exposed. The Koch brothers, as we all know, set up the infrastructure for today's "libertarian" Tea Party, based upon their pouring of:
hundreds of millions of dollars into right-wing organizations like Institute for Humane Studies, the Cato Institute, the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, the Bill of Rights Institute, the Reason Foundation, Citizens for a Sound Economy and the Federalist Society.
These foundations are not unlike the propaganda mill which used the millions of dollars made available after World War II through the Marshall Plan in Europe, which these so-called libertarians have long ranted against. It is also similar to funds like INCA which spread propaganda throughout South and Central America.

The Candy Man Can

What was it that inspired Welch to start funding this libertarian movement? After completing his studies in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Welch spent two years at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. He then moved to Cambridge in 1919 to attend law school at Harvard until 1921. While he was was preparing to be a lawyer, however, he met a Wellesley girl in the Class of 1922 named Marian Lucile Probert, whose father (George Ernest Probert) had immigrated to the U.S. from England and worked in the area of Pittsburgh before settling down in Akron, Ohio. As a freshman at Wellesley, therefore, Marian may have encountered May-ling Soong (eventually Madame Chiang Kai-shek),who graduated from Wellesley College in 1917. Or perhaps Robert walked in the steps trod by her brother T.V. Soong, who finished college at Harvard in 1915 and was Finance Minister of the Nationalist party in China by 1927.

When Robert and Marian married  in the Wellesley College Chapel, his bride had recently returned from a trip to Europe with college friends. The newlyweds remained in the Cambridge area while Robert worked in his brother's candy factory, giving up a career in law. By 1928 he was treasurer of the Oxford Candy Company at 185 Albany Street and had moved to the Watertown suburb of Cambridge, Massachusetts. In August 1929 Marian again returned from a trip to England with their two sons, Robert III and Hillard, but if Robert accompanied them, he returned on his own through an unreported means of transport. The year 1930 found the Welch family living on Long Island at Hempstead, New York, while he commuted to his own candy factory in Brooklyn. A younger brother, Miles Edward Welch, lived with the family and helped in the manufacture of the candy.

Several years later, as early as 1939, both Robert and his brother, James Overton Welch, lived almost next door, both owning homes on Fletcher Road in Belmont, MA. We are told that Robert took a trip to England in 1946 to study socialism's negative impact on the country:
In 1946, Welch journeyed to England to study the destructive impact on that country of its socialist Labor Government. He was alarmed and distressed by the pursuit of similarly destructive policies by our own federal government. He was even more alarmed by the foreign policies of the Truman State Department, which were betraying our allies and assisting with the establishment of Communist regimes in Europe and Asia.
However, according to an item appearing in a June 1947 newspaper in Portland, Maine, Welch had spent "several years" in England. Although it is not clear from any source found that Welch ever served in any military capacity, or exactly how he studied the socialist economy, it is noteworthy that he and his wife, Marian, spent some time in the British island of Bermuda, returning on a PanAm flight from Kindley Field in September 1949. That would have made them one of the first tourists to visit Bermuda by air, if they were indeed tourists and not visiting the island for business purposes.

Welch then became a candidate in the 1950 Republican primary for Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, coming in second to Laurence Curtis, who lost in the general election to his Democrat opponent. 

The James O. Welch Co. began expanding in 1955, purchasing Mansfield chocolate factory, which made packaged candies like Peppermint Patties, Junior Mints and Milk Duds. In 1961, Welch bought the 40-year-old Merckens Chocolate Co. of Buffalo, N.Y., and transported half a million pounds of Merckens’ machinery to the Mansfield plant. In 1963 the National Biscuit Company bought James Welch's company. James Welch, Sr. served as a director of Nabisco from 1963 until his retirement in 1978, and his son was president of the company, which in 1988 was the subject of much interest for takeover. But by then, Robert had left the company, ostensibly to pursue his intellectual interests and writing.

Was there more to his story?

John Birch Society Warning to JFK in 1958

Forewarning to JFK assassination? 
"... you will usually find him in church on Sunday morning, maybe even a Catholic church. But as a member of the United States Senate, running for the presidency, and smart enough to know the strong Communist support behind-the-scenes which he will have to get in order to have any chance of being nominated in 1960, such an amoral man can do a tremendous amount of ball-carrying on behalf of the Communist aims here in the United States... 
--Robert H.W. Welch, founder of John Birch Society (1958)

It was Rev. J. Frank Norris, who, using his seminary set up in the First Baptist Church of Fort Worth, was instrumental in teaching the Chinese language to John M. Birch in the short span of a year's time. The son of missionaries to northern India, John and his brother, Walter Ellis Birch, traveled aboard the S.S. Trafford Hall with their parents, George Snider and Ethel Birch, from Calcutta to Boston in 1920.

From Mission Fields to Fields of Poppies

Charlie Soong
The Birches were part of the "Jumna Mission" in Allahabad, first established by the Presbyterians in 1840. That area near the junction of the Jumna and Ganges rivers historically dates back to battles between the East India Company and the Moghul Empire before 1767. By 1773 the Honourable British Company had the monopoly on the Patna opium controlled by the Nawab of Bengal in this region, which was ultimately trafficked through Macao. This era in history was summarized by Sterling  Seagrave in his book about the Christian-educated Charlie Soong and his family, The Soong Dynasty:
Proper Englishmen like Dr.William Jardine, one of the greatest opium merchants, purchased raw opium from Indian growers for niggardly sums, and resold it to the Chinese through Hong Kong for ten times the amount. For a while, the British were successful in financing their imports of tea by smuggling opium to China, but as tea consumption rose, opium traffic had to be increased accordingly. Since the Manchu regime had banned opium trading, British ships carried their loads to the Portuguese colony of Macao, at the mouth of the Pearl River, unloaded the drug there, then sailed innocently into Canton harbor with legal cargoes. Later, when enough Manchu officials had become partners in the illicit trade, the opium was shipped directly into Canton, where it was stored brazenly in warehouses along the riverside.
Since the Manchus had banned opium, it became important for British and American merchants who traded in the drug to ensure that the Manchu dynasty was overthrown and replaced with a group they could control, possibly through a mutual religious frame of mind. Thus it was through the Protestant family of a young boy dubbed Charlie Soon that these Western merchants would ultimately control China.

It is not a coincidence that the Bengal area of India was an early location for Presbyterian missions since East India Company successor was created by Presbyterian Scots from Dumfriesshire. Dr. William Jardine (born in 1784) had been a surgeon aboard an East India Company ship and subsequently worked for and became a partner of Magniac and company, another opium trader in Canton. James Matheson and his nephew, Alexander Matheson, joined the firm Magniac and Co. in 1827, and joined the partnership in 1832 as Jardine, Matheson and company.

Matheson's interest in the firm ended up in the hands of his nephew:
Mr. Donald Matheson, of the Lews, worthily maintains the high reputation of his race. He was educated at the High School of Edinburgh, and being devoted to a business career proceeded to China as an assistant in the firm of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson and Co. Being of a deeply religious disposition his experience of the opium traffic was such that he became an intensely earnest anti-opiumist.
Donald Matheson
On his return to Scotland, he married, in 1849, Jane Ellen, daughter of Lieutenant Horace Petley, R.N., who is still a sympathetic partner of his domestic joys, and a helper in his public life. During the subsequent years Mr. Matheson has devoted himself mainly to mission work in Edinburgh and London. As an ardent Presbyterian he has rendered valuable service in the London Presbytery, and for a lengthened period acted as Hon. Secretary of their Presbyterian Mission in India. Mr. Matheson is also a Vice-President and Treasurer of the Evangelical Alliance; and he has done good service as a worker in the Foreign Evangelization Society. He gave evidence before the British Opium Commission at Westminster, and strongly denounced the sale of that drug in India under Government patronage. (emphasis added) {See note 1 below.}

Sir Robert Jardine had inherited a large portion of Jardine's interest in the the opium smuggling firm before 1865, when he entered Parliament and was created a baronet in 1885. Another portion was owned by William Johnston(e) "Tony" Keswick, a grandson of William Jardine's sister, who came into the firm in 1855 and became its head in London in 1886. Tony, was in charge of the Shanghai office until 1941. Tony and his brother John Keswick, served as senior intelligence operatives with the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) during WWII.

Du Yue-sheng
We learn from Douglas Valentine's excellently researched book, The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America's War on Drugs, that William J. "Tony" Keswick (1903-1990), a director of Jardine Matheson Shipping Company, and who would be named to the board of the Bank of England and British Petroleum, also sat on the Shanghai Municipal Board (British International Settlement) with Du Yue-sheng. Du was given credit for facilitating Chiang Kai-shek's "bloody ascent to power in 1927," through a crime syndicate he controlled.

Chiang and his brother-in-law, T.V. Soong, were Du's "political protectors." According to Valentine, there was a connection between the Keswick brothers and America's Office of Strategic Services involving "drug-related espionage intrigues." (See also, Diplomacy and Enterprise: British China Policy, 1933-1937 by Stephen Lyon Endicott, which discusses W.J. Keswick's role in influencing British monetary policy in China during the appeasement phase.)

Mme Chiang (Meiling Soong)
American narcotics agent Garland Williams took command of the Army's reorganized Counterintelligence Corps six months prior to the Pearl Harbor attack. A year later he joined the OSS and was sent to London to confer with Tony Keswick, then chief of the British Special Operations Executive (BOE), whose brother, John Keswick, was then working with Chiang's spy chief, Gen. Tai Li, in Chungking, Du's new headquarters since 1941. With information manuals received from Keswick, Garland Williams returned to the U.S. to set up OSS training schools, and, by 1944, he was back in China with a top secret position at the Flying Tiger base in Kunming. All the details about how this relationship affected America's drug policy are provided in The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America's War on Drugs.

Security training was provided by none other than "privateer," William D. Pawley, who would reappear again in the 1960's, helping to finance the fight against Fidel Castro. (See also Maochun Yu, OSS in China: Prelude to Cold War, relating to Gen. Tai Li and Keswick's secret China Commando Group; and The Dragon's War: Allied Operations and the Fate of China, 1937-1947, which states that John Keswick was "an intimate friend to T. V. Soong and Madame Chiang," formerly known as Meiling Soong. With reference to China and the Soong family, all the books by Peggy and Sterling Seagrave are highly recommended and now available to borrow free through Amazon Prime or purchase on Kindle.)
Pawley's 1918 passport (Ancestry.com). Click to enlarge.

Dulles Family of Presbyterian Missionaries

What serious students of government drug policy have learned over the years is that the government officials who make the policy are, for the most part, members of families with ties to either India, China, Persia, or other parts of the world where opium is grown, refined or sold lucratively. As mentioned above, the Keswick family were not only made wealthy through their inherited company, Jardine, Matheson, but were instrumental in directing British policy to their own benefit in China. In addition, they operated at a high level within the BOE in New York (also known as British Security Coordination), with headquarters at 630 Fifth Avenue, Room 3603the same address for Allen Dulles when appointed to run the New York office in 1940.

In the words of Peggy and Sterling Seagrave in the New Epilogue to  Gold Warriors:
Once OSS was set up, Donovan became heavily involved in opium and heroin, mingling narcotics with espionage during the war. [footnote: Seagrave interviews with General Ray Peers. Detachment 101 used opium to pay agents. Ray Peers: “If opium could be useful in achieving victory, the pattern was clear. We would use opium.” Valentine, at page 47, quoting from The Burma Road.]

He learned a lot from the Brits. In China, he worked with SOE’s William and John Keswick of Jardine-Matheson, Britain’s biggest opium cartel in Asia, with a controlling interest in Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, and ties to the Oppenheimer family through the giant mining firm Rio Tinto Zinc.

(HSBC was one of the main repositories of Santy’s gold, and has blocked all efforts by his heirs to access it.) Together, Donovan and the Keswicks arranged deals with KMT spy-boss General Tai Li and his underworld business partner, druglord Du Yueh-sheng. So did Commander “Mary” Miles of SACO, the Sino American Cooperative Organization set up by Donovan’s old friend Navy
Secretary Frank Knox, as cover in China for the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI). Their currency in covert operations was drugs, gold, and diamonds.
Our own research into the background of John Birch (below) unearthed the fact that the missionary's parents had worked out of the Ewing Christian College on behalf of the American Board of Foreign Missions based in New York. Their passport application in 1918 included an affidavit signed by Mr. and Mrs. D.W. Griffin, Presbyterian missionaries in India, who reported on the application to the State Department of having known Birch and his wife for four months. Don W. Griffin had also been associated with Allen Dulles at that same location, according to annual report for Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. Board of Foreign Missions
Excerpt from James Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies (Regnery Publishing Co. 1999):

The first of the [Dulles] line to arrive in America was a Joseph Dulles, who arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, during the Revolutionary War. ...The son, also Joseph Dulles, went to Yale and became a minister....

John Welsh Dulles, Joseph's son, also a Presbyterian minister, answered the call of missionary work that had so gripped the American Protestant churches of that time. The Reverend John Dulles and his wife went to India to preach at a mission in Madras [southeastern tip of India] and stayed there for years before health problems drove them home to Philadelphia. His wife, Harriet Lathrop Winslow, had income of her own, which helped this Reverend Dulles ascend into the hierarchy of the Presbyterian Missions Board. He became something of a celebrity for his memoirs of his work in India and his tours of the Holy Land. ... Since the Presbyterian church was such an important part of the family's identity, it was only natural that later generations of Dulles sons were educated at Princeton College, which was founded by Presbyterians. When it was his turn, Allen Macy Dulles [father of John Foster and Allen Welsh Dulles] graduated with honors from both the undergraduate college and the seminary....

Edith Foster Dulles [their mother] was a ... daughter of a diplomat....He [John Watson Foster] was the valedictorian of his class of 1855 at Indiana University, and his stint at Harvard Law School was followed by a year of reading law with Algernon Sullivan, an established attorney in Cincinnati.... In the 1872 presidential campaign, President Grant's tolerance of the corruption of his inner circle nearly cost him reelection. Yet despite the thousand faults and worries that beset Grant, General Foster, who was chairman of the Indiana Republican Party, stuck loyally to his wartime commander....In 1873 Grant rewarded his old friend by naming him minister to Mexico....

The seven-year tour of duty in Mexico was the first of nearly thirty years of assignments that took [their maternal grandfather] Foster and his family far away from Indiana forever. The next stop was an appointment by President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880, as minister to the court of Russian Czar Alexander II.
John Welsh Dulles, Jr. was a brother of John Foster and Allen Dulles' father (Allen Macy Dulles), and his son, whose name is often given as William Dulles, Jr., was an attorney before serving as treasurer of the Presbyterian Foreign Mission Board for eight years. John Welsh, Jr. and two other siblings of Allen Macy were born in southern India, before their parents returned from the mission field to live in Philadelphia.

Their brother, Perrit, married into an influential family: Mallet-Prevost. Julia A. Mallet-Prevost had been born in Brownsville, Texas in 1854, while her father Dr. Grayson Mallet-Prevost of Philadelphia was serving as a diplomat in Mexico. Although born in Philadelphia in 1823, Grayson was a great grandson of the Frenchman, Henri Mallet, and his Swiss wife, Jeanne Gabrielle Prevost, whose last names were combined when they married in 1753. Jeanne's brother, Jacques Marc Prevost married Theodosia Bartow, shortly before the revolutionary war began in America; they became the parents of John Bartow Prevost and Augustine James Frederick Prevost. Shortly after their father died, fighting on the British side in the revolutionary war, Theodosia married Aaron Burr, tried but not convicted of treason.

John Birch Society--Another False Flag?

The future head of the Central Intelligence Agency, Allen Dulles arrived at his first paying job as an English teacher at Ewing Christian School, the same school where George Birch taught agriculture for three years, 1917-20 at the school which evolved into the Sam Higginbottom Institute {See Note 2 below}. Ethel May Ellis Birch had been the one to apply for the passport for herself in the summer of 1917 with George's passport being something of an afterthought. Two of their children would be born while they lived in Allahabad.

John Birch, a toddler, returned with his parents and infant brother from India in August 1920. Then between 1922 and 1930, five more siblings would be born in Vineland, New Jersey, where Ethel had been born and reared. Her parents were Walter Haskell and Liberty "Bertie" Cosman Ellis. When her father died before 1930, Ethel's mother went to live with a maiden sister, and the Birch family moved back to Georgia, where John's father's family had lived for generations. George Birch had obtained a teaching job at the Martha Berry College near Rome, Georgia, but in 1935 his name appeared in the Macon, Georgia city directory at the County Agricultural office where he supervised the screw worm program there.

By 1946 George Birch's employer was shown as the State Typhus Fever Control Service, and his supervisor would most likely have been Frank S. Hemmings, Jr., who had an office on the 7th floor of the federal building at 544 Mulberry in Macon. Georgia had a strong interest in public health. The Communicable Diseases Center in Atlanta was founded July 1, 1946 as the successor to the World War II Malaria Control in War Areas program of the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities. Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation greatly supported malaria control, sought to have the governments take over some of its efforts, and collaborated with the agency.

Ironically, the "Communists" whom the John Birch Society was organized to warn against were the very people for whom George Birch worked, i.e., the organized public health organization supported by the Rockefeller Foundations. The second irony is that, though Welch repeatedly called John Birch a "fundamentalist Baptist" (page 41) in his Indianapolis speech (see The Blue Book), his parents reported to the same Presbyterian missionary network in Allahabad, India, for which Allen W. Dulles (who then headed the CIA) worked for a year. It is as though Robert Welch was a propaganda tool operating on behalf of the very elite clique he seemed to be attacking. Using the word "fundamentalist" ten times in his speech, Welch rang an alarm about the diminishing numbers of evangelicals attempting to convert the heathen:
Some have merely watered down the faith of our fathers, and of theirs, into an innocuous philosophy instead of an evangelistic religion. Some have converted Christianity into a so-called "social gospel," that bypasses all questions of dogma with an indifference which is comfortable to both themselves and their parishioners; and which "social gospel" becomes in fact indistinguishable from advocacy of the welfare state by socialist politicians.
But Welch also inserted a very ominous paragraph into his 1958 speech, which we have to look back on, after what happened in November 1963, with amazement:
But on our own side of the fence, among the millions who either are, or pretend to be, non-Communists, the amoral man, who has no slightest inner concern with right or wrong, is one of the greatest causes of our constant retreat, and one of the greatest dangers to our survival. And he doesn't wear any label. He usually lives up to the appearance of excellent morals, because it is expedient for his purposes, and you will usually find him in church on Sunday morning, maybe even a Catholic church. But as a member of the United States Senate, running for the presidency, and smart enough to know the strong Communist support behind-the-scenes which he will have to get in order to have any chance of being nominated in 1960, such an amoral man can do a tremendous amount of ball- carrying on behalf of the Communist aims here in the United States; and he can do an almost equal amount of damage to anti-Communist morale in other parts of the world, by his well-publicized speeches against Chiang Kai-shek or in favor of the Algerian rebels. Or an amoral man, as the head of a great so-called Republic, may have no slightest scruples or concern about its fate or the fate of other nations, in the face of Communist conquest and of the cruel tyranny of their rule. And any similarity of characters in this story to any living persons is not coincidental. [emphasis added]
Welch also quoted the poet Alfred Noyes, a former Princeton professor, calling him a "good friend." Noyes had worked during World War I in the British propaganda office of Ambassador Spring-Rice who worked closely in Washington with the Dulles brothers' uncle Robert Lansing. 

Noyes had a role in falsely convicting a man named Roger Casement (later hanged), who was discredited by use of a forged diary for acts of homosexuality. Noyes in 1957 had himself been castigated by the poet Yeats into admitting his part in the offensive British policy:
In 1957 Alfred Noyes made full amends for his previous harsh judgement when he published The Accusing Ghost; or, Justice for Casement in which he argued that Casement had indeed been the victim of a British Intelligence plot. His conversion, and Yeats' protest in verse, cemented the idea that the diaries were forgeries.
We have to wonder. Were Welch and Noyes working together in propaganda and intelligence operations during WWI? Was the John Birch Society a continuation of the British-American propaganda effort on behalf of the Nationalist Chinese?

Bombs Over Tokyo

Many years after George and Ethel Birch returned from their three years in the mission field in India, their eldest son John, having graduated from Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, had decided to attend a Bible Baptist institute in Fort Worth, Texas to learn to be a missionary to the Chinese people. According to a brief bio of Birch, he was already at his mission four months after Pearl Harbor Day when he took on a more active role in history:
Chuchow location near Formosa
In April 1942, he aided the Doolittle Raiders after they crash-landed in Japanese-controlled areas of China [30 miles north of Chuchow China] by helping them get to friendly territory. Jimmy Doolittle recommended John to Gen. Claire Chennault for service with the Army Air Forces and Chennault awarded Birch a commission on July 4, 1942.

I Could Never Be So Lucky Again: An Autobiography
Chennault used Birch as an intelligence officer and he served with the Military Intelligence Service with Headquarters 14th Air Force when it was activated on March 10, 1943. Capt Birch also worked for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II, but managed to continue his missionary work to the Chinese people at the same time. On August 25, 1945, Capt. Birch was murdered by Chinese Communists while traveling to reach Allied personnel in a Japanese prisoner of war camp. He was buried in a cemetery near Hsuchow, China. The John Birch Society was named in his honor on December 9, 1958, and he is considered to be the first casualty of the Cold War.

What Can Be Documented

At the time of the 1940 census, John Birch, age 21, lived as a boarder in a rented house at 915 West First Street in Fort Worth with a fellow student of his same approximate age, Oscar Wells, nephew of Martha Thomson, the widow of J.B. Thomson. Birch reported his birthplace as British India. By the time the 1942 directory was issued, the house was vacant.

Birch address in Fort Worth, 1940 census
Birch's roommate, Oscar Wells came to Fort Worth from an isolated area of the Texas Panhandle, east of Amarillo, near the Oklahoma border and would also serve as a missionary to China. Shortly after leaving Fort Worth, Wells married Myrtle Huizenga under a certificate signed by F. Russell Engdahl of the American Consular Service in Shanghai, China in June 1942. {See Note 3}

The Wellses had a daughter born in Shanghai, later-astronaut Shannon Wells Lucid:
Shannon Lucid was born in Shanghai, China on January 14, 1943. Shortly after her birth Lucid with her parents were interned in a Japanese concentration camp in northern China during the Second World War. The camp was referred to as the Shantung Compound, and the internees were not freed until 1945. A book has been written about the trying conditions in the compound by a University of Chicago theologian Langdon Gilkey [son of Hyde Park Baptist Church pastor and the first dean of the University of Chicago's Rockefeller Chapel]. The title of the book is “Shantung Compound.” Lucid’s parents were Baptist missionaries Oscar and Myrtle Wells.
Fighting in Chuchow, 1927
Norris {See Note 4} had long been a great supporter of the mission work of his friends, Rev. and Mrs. Fred Sheldon Donnelson, who set up the Shanghai Baptist Tabernacle, after the Japanese began attacking the Chinese in this area, the same area which had been the subject of Sun Yat-sen's Boxer Rebellion years earlier.
In 1937, Japan and China were at war. Hangchow [45 miles northeast of Chuchow] was continually under Japanese air attack. When the Japanese infantry landed troops nearby, the Donnelsons fled to Shanghai. They reluctantly left for a trip home and a furlough, but not before becoming burdened for the city of Shanghai. They vowed to return as soon as possible.

When the Donnelsons returned to the United States, they found the independent Baptist landscape had changed. The protest-based Baptist Bible Union had given way to the missionary vision-based World Fundamental Baptist Missionary Fellowship. Churches and preachers were attracted to a system of missionary support that showed signs of organization yet lacking the features of denominational control and bureaucratic inefficiency. ... The pages of J. Frank Norris’s Fundamentalist constantly encouraged readers to send support for the new work to be built when the Donnelsons returned to Shanghai.

They did return in the fall of 1938. In the next three and a half years, they established Shanghai Baptist Tabernacle and a Bible school with dormitories for housing resident students.

Other Fundamentalist World Mission Work

Jerry Falwell
One-time Director of World Missions for the Baptist Bible Fellowship, Rev. Fred Sheldon Donnelson would in 1972 be offered a position by Rev. Jerry Falwell (founder of the "Moral Majority") at Lynchburg Baptist College in Virginia. Falwell knew Donnelson through his son, Paul Frederick Donnelson, pastor of the Park Avenue Baptist Church in Lynchburg, whose preaching "brought him [Falwell] to the altar" in 1952.

This miracle of salvation occurred only three short years after the Donnelson family, after being interned by Japanese soldiers in China, had to leave China for the second and final time in 1949. In 1952 J. Frank Norris, died, and the Baptist institute in Fort Worth which John Birch had attended for a brief time was relocated to Arlington, Texas at the site of a former gambling casino. But that's another story in itself.
[Side note: Investigative journalist Daniel Hopsicker has documented more than one strange connection between Donnelson's "convert," Falwell, and a flight school at Venice, Florida, airport owned by Wallace Hilliard, a school that "trained" alleged Saudi student pilots connected to the 9/11 attack at the World Trade Center.]

From the John Birch Society (JBS) document, The Blue Book, we learn the names of the founding Council of the JBS in 1958. These directors did not include General Jimmy Doolittle, but the list did include Lt. Gen. Charles Bertody Stone III, who came from a military family from Georgia. Stone had earlier been stationed at Wright Field as chief of the supply branch, Air Service Command, and in June 1945 (two months before John Birch was "assassinated" by Red Chinese) was assigned the task of organizing a new headquarters for the Flying Tigers, which was absorbed into the 14th Air Force. He assumed command two months later.

The Saturday Evening Post in 1955 contained this statement:
After the Japanese surrender, Captain Birch headed a mission which proceeded north from Anhwei Province toward Tsingtao, apparently to straighten out some difficulty which Chinese-communist troops had created in the surrender of Japanese units. Because the file on Captain Birch's mission has been classified as secret, there is no way of knowing just what the purpose of the mission was. According to Robert H. W. Welch, Jr., in The Life of John Birch (Regnery), the captain himself felt that "it is of utmost importance that my country learn now whether these people are friend or foe."
When U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson ridiculed the idea that the U.S. was losing face in Asia in 1949 as the result of State Department policy toward China, he was taking a slap at Chinese Nationalist lobby in the U.S. One of the lobby's sparkplugs is a New York [textile] importer named Alfred Kohlberg. Operating through the American China Policy Association, Kohlberg is a fount of propaganda for the Nationalist cause, sending masses of material to a list of 2,000 editors. Though Kohlberg is not registered as a Congressional lobbyist, Capitol Hill is flooded with his pro-Nationalist material. In at least one instance the Chinese embassy itself has lobbied against a Presidential appointment. In July 1949 a high embassy official met secretly with a group of ten U.S. Senators to urge the defeat of W. Walton Butterworth as Assistant Secretary of State for the Far East. Nation. 12/24/1949, Vol. 169 Issue 26, p619-620. 2p
The article focuses on China lobbyist Alfred Kohlberg. Kohlberg would indeed be either the very last person or the very first person one would expect to discover trafficking in Communist Chinese merchandise. The U.S. customs authorities apparently saw it the latter way when, in December, 1954, they impounded 30,800 embroidered linen handkerchiefs, worth $90,000, which Kohlberg had imported from Hong Kong. Kohlberg protests they were not made in Communist China but in Hong Kong. Kohlberg will be remembered as the voluble New York propagandist who seven years ago led the China Lobby's attack on the State Department's now-exiled China hands. New Republic. 6/25/56, Vol. 134 Issue 26, p6-6. 1/2p. [emphasis added]

Gen. Claire Chennault with Madame and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek

Birch's death, occurring just days after WWII ended, would be waved like a bloody shirt by the John Birch Society, created  in 1958, as the first American killed in WWIII. But, we are told, the JBS was not affiliated with Norris, who had died in 1952.



{Note 1}
 Donald Matheson's son Duncan was a Major in the Inniskilling Dragoons, which we cannot help but notice was the regiment connected to the Hargreaves branch of the Alexander Brown banking family. Sir William Brown's daughter Grace Brown Hargreaves was mother of Thomas Hargreaves, and his daughter Annie in 1877 married Frederick Eustace Arbuthnott Wollaston, whose father was a Major in the Irish Jacobite 6th Inniskilling Dragoons. An uncle, William Wollaston, was in the 47th Bengal Native Infantry, the army assigned to the East India Company in northern India, an area that has once been more Muslim than Hindu. Another relative was Arthur Naylor Wollaston, author of several books about Islam, who was in the India Office's Revenue Department.

{Note 2} 
Obituary, THE NEW YORK TIMES, June 12, 1958:  Dr. Higginbottom came to the United States in his youth. He attended Amherst College and received an M.A. at Princeton University. He began service in Allahabad in 1903 as an economics teacher at the Christian College and soon began his campaign to improve the living standard of the Indian country folk, or, as he put it, "to save men's souls by saving their bodies first".

In 1909 Dr. Higginbottom returned to this country to study scientific farming at Ohio State University. He received a B.Sc. degree in agriculture there in 1911 and raised $30,000 from church groups to develop his farm school plans.

Indian princes and British Indian officials repeatedly visited the Higginbottom establishment to study his methods and invite him to lecture before representative bodies. Princeton University, in 1923, awarded a Doctorate of Philanthropy to him, and in 1952 he won the national award of the American Agricultural Editors' Association.

His "The Gospel and the Plow", published by Macmillan's, became an outstanding book in its field. He also wrote "What Does Jesus Expect of His Church?" and "Sam Higginbottom, Farmer".

{Note 3}
Engdahl had married Elizabeth Lockhart in a Catholic ceremony soon after being posted in Shanghai in 1937. A 1941 article identified her as the daughter of Dr. Oliver Cary Lockhart, who had been serving for the past twelve years as "financial advisor to the Chinese government." Dr. Lockhart began a teaching career at Ohio State University in Columbus in 1908 (living in upper Arlington near the more ostentatious Marble Cliff community where Prescott Bush's family lived), where he taught, among other classes, "banking and foreign exchange." By the time WWI rolled around, in addition to teaching, Lockhart also held a position in Manhattan with the Morgan-affiliated National Bank of Commerce as an auditor and eventually moved his family to an apartment across the street from Columbia University.

Dr. Lockhart authored an article that appear in the Feb. 1924 issue of the Quarterly Journal of Economics entitled "The Denominations of the Currency in Relation to the Gold Problem," which begins with the following paragraph:
The monetary gold stock of the United States has more than doubled since July 1, 1914. It is now well above four billion dollars, and is increasing at the rate of twenty-five or thirty millions per month. The greater part of this accumulation is directly or indirectly the outgrowth of the World War. The principal currency problem before the country to-day relates to the influence of this accumulation on total monetary circulation and on the volume of bank credit.
Things would change, however, after the stock market crashed in 1929, and Lockhart would be sent to China as an adviser until 1941. Upon his return he was employed by the Office of Price Administration in Washington, D.C., while his wife, the former Joanna Kenyon Mix, remained at their home in Greens Farms, Connecticut. Their daughter, wife of Consul Russ Engdahl, would be interned in the Japanese camp, where her husband died allegedly from an accidental fall, but Elizabeth, a graduate of Cornell, lived until 1995, working in various consular posts:
'33—Elizabeth Lockhart Engdahl of Mill Valley, CA, formerly of Washington, DC, Dec. 16, 1994; retired head of field operations division of visa office, US State Department; former Foreign Service officer who served in Shanghai, Teheran, Paris, and Vienna; active in professional affairs.
While in Shanghai, Engdahl's boss, also named Lockhart, came from Texas. Consul General Frank Pruit Lockhart was U.S. Consul General in Hankow, 1925-31; Tientsin, 1931-35; Shanghai, 1940-42 . Also interned in the same camp with the Engdahls, he was returned to the U.S. aboard the S.S. Gripsholm in 1942. Intriguingly, we note that the consular post he held would be filled by John Moors Cabot.

{Note 4}
Norris had been waging a battle against Russian communism since 1935, long before Senator Joe McCarthy joined the bandwagon (see sermon which begins at page 201 of the file; also Turley, p. 292). Here is an excerpt from that sermon, quoting from a 1935 resolution of the Northern Baptist Convention held in Colorado Springs:
Now, I am going to make a charge that the Social Action Commission [of the Northern Baptist Convention] and Russian Communism, especially two principal American branches are identical. Let me quote from the report:
We are convinced that the economic system as it has been operated has also created serious obstacles to Christian living. There are multitudes of Christians in high and low positions in our economic and industrial life who desire to express their Christianity in these relations but who find it impossible within the system.

The church has a responsibility to them. It is futile to bring up generations of youth in Christian ideals which they are compelled to discard when they go out to make a living. Christians owe it to themselves and to their fellows to work for an economic order in which Christian motives have freer chance for expression and in which Christian ideals have larger hope of realization.

The possibility of change for the better must be accepted as a fact by the Christian. The economic system has been man-made and it can be changed by men. Changes must begin with the individual and an improved operation of any system rests with the individuals. 'No gain can be achieved by society that is not supported by human wills.'
"In view of these conditions, what may be done by our denomination to effect the changes which are necessary to provide more opportunity and encouragement for men and women to live as Christians in their economic and industrial relations and to secure fundamental justice for all?
"It is clear that the denomination corporately cannot prosecute particular measures for social change. It should, however, have a constant program of education on these matters for its constituency which will enable them to act in accordance with Christian standards in these relations.
"We therefore recommend that such a program be conducted by the denomination through the local churches with the following definite objectives:
"I.  To create social attitudes based on these fundamental considerations.
"II.  A second definite objective of such a program of education should be to keep before our constituency certain basic issues, among them being:
" (l)  Economic security for all. This would involve general education on the need of unemployment, sickness and accident insurance and old age pensions; assembling and distributing the facts relative to specific measures for economic security; making available lists of information sources and agencies; and co-operation with other denominations and agencies for the furtherance of economic security.

" (2) Collective bargaining in industry. This would involve a program of education for a better understanding of the relative positions and problems of employers and employees in bargaining over wages, hours and conditions of work; and further the provision for a social action committee in every church, or in cooperation with other churches, to ascertain and publish the facts in the event of conflict and to encourage the exercise of moral judgment; and finally the support of whichever party in a dispute is in the right by purchasing the products of the industry or by contributions to the needs of the workers of funds, moral encouragement and places of meeting where needed.

" (3) More adequate representation of consumer interest in the determination of economic policies. This would involve the study of how the government may safeguard the consumer and promote his welfare and how consumers themselves may be informed so as to buy for their real needs and best interests instead of being at the mercy of the producer's and seller's advertising.

" (4) Keep open the channels of discussion of controversial economic and industrial issues. This would involve the dissemination of information about anti-sedition legislation designed to prevent the discussion end advocacy of legitimate economic changes and the organization of sentiment and effort for the defeat or repeal of any such laws as infringe upon the constitutional liberties. It would also involve giving moral and financial support to those who have been the victims of discrimination.
"III.  A third definite objective of such an educational program for the denomination should be to inculcate in individuals worthy economic motives and incentives that through them the basis of the economic system may be shifted from that of acquisitiveness to that of service.
 "IV.  A fourth definite objective should be to impress upon our individual members the importance of effecting changes in the economic order by the exercise  of their three-fold citizenship — political, civic and economic.

" (l) By political citizenship support should be given to whatever political party or candidate represents, on the whole, the most favorable disposition and opportunity to effect the desired changes. Since, however, the major political parties have not come to be in any considerable measure parties of clearly avowed and continuously held social principles, political effectiveness through them in the direction of the desired economic changes must involve support of smaller interest and pressure groups whose intelligent and persistent advocacy may lead to the espousing of social principles and programs from time to time by these major parties. Such pressure groups are numerous and range in point of view in our country from the American Liberty League to the League for industrial Democracy".
Now we have the whole thing out. Two of the principal Russian Communistic organizations in this country are "The American Liberty League" and "The League for Industrial Democracy".